Category Archives: Neuroplasticity

Living and Working with “HOPE” in the Presence of Parkinson’s

“Life is difficult. This is the great truth, one of the greatest truths-it is a great truth because once we see this truth, we transcend it.” M. Scott Peck

“Life is hard. Life is beautiful. Life is difficult. Life is wonderful.” Kate DiCamillo

Introduction: A student and loyal reader of this blog recently asked “What do I do with all of the advice/tips/suggestion posts from the blog?” My reply was they help me balance out my day-to-day life; especially for work and to protect my time for exercise and time to spend with the significant-people in my life.  I typically print out the 1-page summaries and keep them in a folder, or post them at work, as reminders to what I value.  “What about all of your supportive and descriptive statements about living well with Parkinson’s disease?  I bet your readers of the blog would enjoy having some of your statements compiled like your advice posts, don’t you agree?”  My response was you want me to make some 1-page handouts of my comments? Yes, I could do that. That kind of a handout could help me as well; they could also serve as a roadmap to where the blog has traveled.  Interesting questions/suggestions, thanks for asking them.

“If you don’t know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.” Yogi Berra

The tenacity of hope: There are 4 broad goals to this blog: i) describe living with Parkinson’s (“Life Lessons“); ii) report emerging medical strategies for treating/managing/curing Parkinson’s (“Medical Education“); iii) support mechanism to anyone with Parkinson’s or any of the neurodegenerative disorders (“Strategy for Living“); and iv) educate by presenting scientific aspects of Parkinson’s (“Translating Science”).  Throughout much of the posts here, I firmly believe that words/concepts like hope, positive, persistent, staying happy and healthy, exercise (a lot, daily if possible), and refuse to give up are all important ‘life-lines’ for us to adopt in our dealing with this disorder.  Today’s message returns to hope and “HOPE”.  Hope is defined by the Cambridge dictionary as “the feeling that something desired can be had or will happen”.  I use HOPE as an acronym in Parkinson’s and it stands for:

H = Hope/Health(y)
O = Optimistic/Positive
P = Persistent/Perseverance
E = Enthusiasm for life, for career, and for exercise

Steve Gleason said “Life is difficult. Not just for me or other ALS patients. Life is difficult for everyone. Finding ways to make life meaningful and purposeful and rewarding, doing the activities that you love and spending time with the people that you love – I think that’s the meaning of this human experience.”  I really like the sentiment of his statement and admire his courage through adversity.  It reminds me that we are a community with a shared theme; while we are spread out throughout the world, we understand one another because Parkinson’s has been sewn in to the fabric of our lives. I am also convinced that staying hopeful and using HOPE gives us tenacity to deal with the subtle changes being forced upon us by the ever present Parkinson’s.

“Your qualifications, your CV, are not your life, though you will meet many people of my age and older who confuse the two. Life is difficult, and complicated, and beyond anyone’s control, and the humility to know that will enable you to survive its vicissitudes.” J.K. Rowling

Living and working with HOPE: This current post reinforces the meaning for HOPE.  It reminds me of Stevie Nicks and Fleetwood Mac’s Landslide where she sings “Can I sail through the changin‘ ocean tides? / Can I handle the seasons of my life?” We confront both of these questions daily with Parkinson’s.  My hope is you find reassurance that your life and world are still meaningful, and you are not battling Parkinson’s alone. We know and we understand what you are confronting each day; thus, be persistent and remain hopeful.

Here is a link to a SlideShare file that will allow you to easily read/view all of these 1-page handouts.  You do not need a login, it’s free. You can read, clip and copy individual slides (1-page handouts); it even will let you download the entire file: click here to view Living and Working with “HOPE” in the Presence of Parkinson’s. Alternatively, here is the URL:  And finally, in case the above link proves problematic, here is a copy of these 1-page summaries (click here to download PDF file).  I have enjoyed re-reading the old blog posts these were derived from (some of these were previously posted and several are new) and they are presented as follows:

  • Part 1: Some of Frank’s quotes about living with Parkinson’s (four 1-page handouts);
  • Part 2: Suggestions, character traits, and tips for the journey through life and career in the absence and presence of Parkinson’s (seven 1-page summaries);
  • Part 3: Health and exercise while living with Parkinson’s (five 1-page summaries);
  • Part 4: Historical time-line of Parkinson’s disease (six 1-page reports)

“Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” Albert Einstein

Know that wherever you are in your life right now is both temporary, and exactly where you are supposed to be. You have arrived at this moment to learn what you must learn, so you can become the person you need to be to create the life you truly want. Even when life is difficult or challenging-especially when life is difficult and challenging-the present is always an opportunity for us to learn, grow, and become better than we’ve ever been before.” Hal Elrod

Cover photo credit:

7 Healthy Habits For Your Brain

   “Your brain – every brain – is a work in progress. It is ‘plastic.’ From the day we’re born to the day we die, it continuously revises and remodels, improving or slowly declining, as a function of how we use it.” Michael Merzenich

“The root of all health is in the brain. The trunk of it is in emotion. The branches and leaves are the body. The flower of health blooms when all parts work together.” Kurdish Saying

7 Basic Brain Facts [click here for more facts]: (1) The typical brain is ~2% of your total weight but it uses 20% of your total energy and oxygen intake. (2) >100,000 chemicals reactions/sec occur in your brain. (3) The latest estimate is that our brains contain ~86 billion brain cells. (4) In contrast to the popular belief that we use ~10% of our brains; brain scans show we use most of our brain most of the time. (5) There are as many as 10,000 specific types of neurons in the brain.  (6) Cholesterol is an integral part of every brain cell. Twenty-five percent of the body’s cholesterol resides within the brain. (7) Your brain generates between 12-25 watts of electricity, which is enough to power a low wattage LED light.

7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain: With or without Parkinson’s disease, taking care of your brain is all-important to your overall well-being, life-attitude, and health. These are  straightforward suggestions of healthy habits for your brain; hopefully, this list will serve as a reminder about their importance.  Here is a 1-page summary of the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain” (Click here to download file).


[1] Exercise and neuroplasticity:
  Exercise is almost like a soothing salve for your brain.  Some benefits of exercise include helping your memory and increased flow of oxygen to brain, which energizes the brain.  Exercise is good for both your heart and your brain. Exercise can reduce inflammation in the brain and increase hormones circulating to your brain.  For a brief overview on the benefits of exercise to your brain, click here.

Neuroplasticity is the ability to re-draw, re-wire the connections in your brain. What this means is that neuroplasticity is a concerted attempt of neurons to compensate for brain injury/disease. Neuroplasticity ultimately modifies your brain’s activities in response to changes in these neuronal-environments.

There is much positive evidence in animal models of Parkinson’s regarding exercise-induced neuroplasticity.  The same benefits are now being tested in humans with Parkinson’s and the results are most encouraging. One of the numerous backlogged blog drafts that will be completed in the near-future is a “Review of Exercise and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s”.

“Exercise is really for the brain, not the body. It affects mood, vitality, alertness, and feelings of well-being.” John Ratey

“Neuroplasticity research showed that the brain changes its very structure with each different activity it performs, perfecting its circuits so it is better suited to the task at hand.” Naveen Jain

[2] Diet and brain food: Your memory is aided by ‘what’ you eat.  Harvard’s Women Health Watch makes the following suggestion to boost your memory through diet (click here to read entire article): “The Mediterranean diet includes several components that might promote brain health: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil help improve the health of blood vessels, reducing the risk for a memory-damaging stroke; Fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been linked to lower levels of beta-amyloid proteins in the blood and better vascular health; Moderate alcohol consumption raises levels of healthy high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Alcohol also lowers our cells’ resistance to insulin, allowing it to lower blood sugar more effectively. Insulin resistance has been linked to dementia.”  WebMD summarized the role of diet and brain health in “Eat Smart for a Healthier Brain” (click here to read article).

A large group of women (>13,000 participants) over the age of 70 were studied and the results showed that the women who ate the most vegetables had the greater mental agility (click here to read the article). These results suggest for a healthy brain we should eat colorful fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants; and foods rich in natural vitamin E, vitamin C, B (B6, B12) folic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, we should avoid refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. In small amounts, vitamin D3 is almost like candy for your brain.

“Hunger, prolonged, is temporary madness! The brain is at work without its required food, and the most fantastic notions fill the mind.” Jules Verne

“Everything one reads is nourishment of some sort – good food or junk food – and one assumes it all goes in and has its way with your brain cells.” Lorrie Moore

[3] Mindfulness/meditation: Greater Good (The Science of a Meaningful Life) describes mindfulness as “…maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment. Mindfulness also involves acceptance, meaning that we pay attention to our thoughts and feelings without judging them—without believing, for instance, that there’s a ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ way to think or feel in a given moment.”  I recently described mindfulness as “Mindfulness means you stay within your breath, and focus within yourself, with no remembrance of the past minute and no planning for the future moment.”  Here’s a simple mindfulness experience/moment: simply be aware of the steam leaving your morning cup of coffee/tea, clear your immediate thoughts, then sip, focus and savor this moment.

“The picture we have is that mindfulness practice increases one’s ability to recruit higher order, pre-frontal cortex regions in order to down-regulate lower-order brain activity,” a comment from Dr. Adrienne Taren, a researcher studying mindfulness at the University of Pittsburgh. She also said  “it’s the disconnection of our mind from its ‘stress center’ that seems to give rise to a range of physical as well as mental health benefits.”  (Click here to read this article).  “What Does Mindfulness Meditation Do to Your Brain?” (click here to read more)

“Mindfulness practices enhance the connection between our body, our mind and everything else that is around us.” Nhat Hanh

“Mindfulness is a pause — the space between stimulus and response: that’s where choice lies.” Tara Brach

 [4] Stress reduction: When you are under constant or chronic stress your body makes more of the steroid hormone cortisol (a glucocorticoid), which is produced by the adrenal glands above your kidneys.  Over time, chronic stress can trigger changes in brain structure and function. Excess cortisol production reduces neuronal cells, over-produces myelin protective covering to our nerves, and we make more oligodendrocytes.  How do you reduce chronic stress?  Exercise and mindfulness/meditation are both able to lower cortisol levels.  Easier said then done to making life-style changes to reduce chronic stress; however, doing it will allow the neuroplastic process to begin re-wiring your brain. For an overview of stress and trying to manage/reduce chronic stress, click here.

“Stress is an ignorant state. It believes that everything is an emergency.” Natalie Goldberg

“There is more to life than increasing its speed.” Mahatma Gandhi

[5] Work, keep active mentally:  There are 2 sides to this topic.  First, stay engaged at work and you won’t age as fast as someone disengaged.  What I’m trying to say is simply staying active mentally at work will assist your brain during the ageing process.  Keep your brain stimulated with work, thought, challenges; the effort provides your brain with significant growth.  Your reward will be an active-focused and rejuvenated mind.  Second, by contrast, we’re all working long hours balancing too many tasks, all-the-time; ultimately, we’re trying to multi-task when we really can’t multi-task very well.  In a nice article entitled “The Magic of Doing One Thing at a Time“, Tony Schwartz summarized a key problem: “It’s not just the number of hours we’re working, but also the fact that we spend too many continuous hours juggling too many things at the same time. What we’ve lost, above all, are stopping points, finish lines and boundaries.”  As you balance the 2-sides-of-the-topic, focus your energy on the first-side by performing each individual task/topic; clear your mind, keep your brain engaged, focus hard and then let your brain renew.

“To let the brain work without sufficient material is like racing an engine. It racks itself to pieces.” Arthur Conan Doyle

“A fresh mind keeps the body fresh. Take in the ideas of the day, drain off those of yesterday.” Edward Bulwer-Lytton

 [6] Positive and happy is better for your brain:  I truly believe you need to be positive in dealing with Parkinson’s; trying to focus on staying happy will benefit all-around you and bolster your brain’s health. Using positivity will allow you to creatively handle many obstacles ahead, whether in the absence or presence of Parkinson’s.  Susan Reynolds summarized in “Happy Brain, Happy Life” that being happy: “stimulates the growth of nerve connections; improves cognition by increasing mental productivity; improves your ability to analyze and think; affects your view of surroundings; increases attentiveness; and leads to more happy thoughts.”  On the notion of staying positive, she said: “…thinking positive, happy, hopeful, optimistic, joyful thoughts decreases cortisol and produces serotonin, which creates a sense of well-being. This helps your brain function at peak capacity.”


“Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” Maya Angelou

“You have to train your brain to be positive just like you work out your body.” Shawn Achor

[7] Sleep: It’s simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Many of us battle with less than adequate daily sleep habits.  However, it’s really simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Much of our day’s success resides in the quality of sleep the night before.  The science of sleep is complex but much of it revolves around our brain.  We use sleep to renew and de-fragment our brain; and sleep helps strengthen our memory.  For more details on sleep science, please look over “What Happens in the Brain During Sleep?” (click here).  Alice G. Walton very nicely summarized several aspects of the sleep-brain interactions focusing on the following 7 headings: “Sleep helps solidify memory; Toxins, including those associated with Alzheimer’s disease, are cleared during sleep; Sleep is necessary for cognition; Creativity needs sleep; Sleep loss and depression are  intertwined; Physical health and longevity; and Kids need their sleep” [click here for “7 Ways Sleep Affects The Brain (And What Happens If It Doesn’t Get Enough)”].  Finally, the Rand Corp. just released a comprehensive study on sleep and the economic burden being caused by the lack of sleep (click here to read the 100-page report).

Sleep is the golden chain that ties health and our bodies together.Thomas Dekker

A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor’s book.   Irish Proverb

A Personal Reflection on the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain”:  My fall semester is physically, mentally, and emotionally draining; and I cherish doing all of these tasks, I really do.  The writing of this blog is a deliberate attempt to remind me what I need to be doing, to re-initiate tomorrow in my daily life.  I could explain each point in detail in what poor-brain-health-habits I’ve developed this semester (but I won’t).  However, I am printing out the 1-page handout of 7-healthy-brain-habits to keep it with me as I spend the rest of December re-establishing effective habits for my brain; and doing a better job of balancing work with life-love-fun.

“Your body, which is bonding millions of molecules every second, depends on transformation. Breathing and digestion harness transformation. Food and air aren’t just shuffled about but, rather, undergo the exact chemical bonding needed to keep you alive. The sugar extracted from an orange travels to the brain and fuels a thought. The emergent property in this case is the newness of the thought; no molecules in the history of the universe ever combined to produce that exact thought.” Deepak Chopra

Cover image:

Mindfulness list:





Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s

“Life is not only merriment, it is desire and determination.” Kahlil Gibran

“Nothing will work unless you do.” Maya Angelou

Dedication: I recently participated in a Parkinson Wellness Recovery (PWR!) Instructor Workshop in Greenville, SC (July 30-31, 2016); now I am certified in PWR!Moves.  This post is dedicated to the workshop instructor Jennifer Bazan-Wigle; and to my classmates, all of the personal trainers interested in working with Parkinson’s disease patients.  Jennifer was simply a great instructor, with a real understanding of Parkinson’s and a true ability to ‘teach’.  The personal trainers who participated were very dedicated in their effort to master PWR!Moves and their willingness to instruct me during the weekend workshop made for a memorable experience.  And not to forget Steve Miller, a PWR!Moves instructor, who also helped teach; you were the inspiration that led me to apply for this workshop. To everyone certified in PWR!Moves and to those involved in my PWR!Moves workshop, thank you, thank you so very much.

PWR! Logo

“There are no shortcuts to any place worth going.” Beverly Sills

Introduction: Coach Lou Holtz said “Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.”  This got me thinking about ability, motivation and attitude but especially how vital both motivation and attitude are for living successfully with Parkinson’s.

Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s:
I’m a healthy person that happens to have Parkinson’s; this is what I believe:
I believe daily exercise enhances my life in the presence of Parkinson’s.
I believe people-with-Parkinson’s can become healthier with exercise.
I believe sustained exercise can promote neuroplasticity to re-wire my neural network.
I believe I have the ability to do the repetitions to re-train my brain.
I believe staying positive will help control the course of my Parkinson’s.
I believe having courage will provide mettle in the battle against my disorder.
I believe being persistent allows me to restrain my Parkinson’s.
I believe motivation begins from within, and there can be no backing down to this disease.
I believe if I don’t give up I can slow the progression of my disorder.
I believe if you pity me it feeds the hunger of my Parkinson’s.
I believe if you join my team, you can help me stall this slowly evolving disorder.
I believe attitude is the fuel to sustain the effort to combat Parkinson’s.
I believe in science that new therapies/strategies against Parkinson’s are on the horizon.
I believe exercise with ability, motivation and attitude will work to my advantage each day.
I believe that each new day renews my chance of slowing the beast named Parkinson’s.
My daily mantra is to never give up; I refuse to surrender to Parkinson’s.

“Keep your thoughts positive because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive because your words become your behavior. Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes your habits. Keep your habits positive because your habits become your values. Keep your values positive because your values become your destiny.” Mahatma Gandhi

Cover photo credit:



Déjà Vu and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s

“Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential.” Winston S. Churchill

“…remember that what has once been done may be done again.” Alexandre Dumas

Introducing the terms:
éjà vu: “A feeling of having already experienced the present situation.” (

Neuroplasticity: “The brain’s ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. Neuroplasticity allows the neurons (nerve cells) in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and to adjust their activities in response to new situations or to changes in their environment.” ( )

Do you remember learning how to ride a bike, throw/catch a baseball, and/or hit a golf ball? Yes, yes, yes; when I was a child with my father.
Learning to ride a bicycle
–  training wheels, then two wheels with support from my dad going down the street, and then he let me go on my own; never to forget how to balance and pedal the bicycle.
Learning how to catch and throw a baseball– wrapping up the ball in the mitt to get it conditioned, the  correct throwing motion, watching the thrown ball into the mitt and working on my hand-to-eye coordination.
Learning the basics of the golf swing– the complexity and intricate timing of swinging a golf club with my dad showing me how to do it from grip, set-up, back swing to follow through.
We likely all have childhood memories of activities where our brain and body were trained/taught to do something.

“Neurons that fire together wire together. Mental states become neural traits. Day after day, your mind is building your brain. This is what scientists call experience-dependent neuroplasticity,” Rick Hanson

Déjà vu and physical activity with Parkinson’s: As someone who has loved to exercise almost every day for most of my life, Parkinson’s is a most disagreeable disorder. Why? Let me give you an example of playing golf. I think about playing golf almost every day although I play maybe once a week and try to practice a couple of times per week. It used to be, every time I addressed the golf ball, my body remembered what it’s supposed to do while waiting for the signals from the brain. Now today, approaching the golf ball I remind myself this is a golf shot. As Yogi Berra said “It’s like déjà vu, all over again” and I remember I’ve been here many times before. It’s as if a short circuit exists and I’m realigning this circuitry every time I swing the golf club. For the most part, my brain-body connection still works and I successfully hit the golf ball; but not every time (maybe I just need to practice more?). This might be analogous to a car running very low on transmission fluid (i.e., in my case low on dopamine); the gears are still working but just not working very smoothly.

“Never give up. It’s like breathing—once you quit, your flame dies letting total darkness extinguish every last gasp of hope. You can’t do that. You must continue taking in even the shallowest of breaths, continue putting forth even the smallest of efforts to sustain your dreams. Don’t ever, ever, ever give up.” Richelle E. Goodrich

Neuroplasticity and physical activity: Kleim and Jones (2008) and Petzinger et al. (2013) describe neuroplasticity as a process where the brain encodes experiences and is able to learn new behavior. They define neuroplasticity as the modification of existing neural networks by adding or modifying synapses in response to changes in behavior or environment, especially when done with exercise. Thus, neuroplasticity can help repair and strengthen the circuitry of the brain.  There is substantial evidence in human studies and in rodent-experimental models that have validated numerous exercise-associated effects on “brain health”.  A regular aerobic exercise program likely helps to promote the appropriate conditions for the injured brain to undergo neuroplasticity. 

“Among other things, neuroplasticity means that emotions such as happiness and compassion can be cultivated in much the same way that a person can learn through repetition to play golf and basketball or master a musical instrument, and that such practice changes the activity and physical aspects of specific brain areas.” Andrew Weil

Neuroplasticity and physical activity in Parkinson’s: [Please remember I am not a physician; I’m not making recommendations for you to do something.  Please talk with your neurologist and/or family practitioner before beginning any of these exercise programs.]  Balance, gait-improvement and flexibility are some of the obvious things a person with Parkinson’s needs to address on a frequent basis, in fact, on a daily basis. Clearly this needs to be self-motivated in the interest of possible neuro-rehabilitation. Most experts suggest that the exercise program should be repetitive, intense, and challenging.   Of course, you must enjoy the exercise program.   Ultimately, exercising should hopefully improve motor functions  and also assist  in improving cognitive function.

The exercises that have been most widely studied and proven to be the most beneficial in promoting neuroplasticity are  treadmill training, amplitude training, tai chi, tango dancing, boxing and cycling  (there are many other exercises to consider, don’t be limited by these above). In my opinion, it’s doing the aerobic exercise you enjoy on a daily and sustained basis,  it’s getting range of motion, and its challenging to you mentally.  As a scientist, I’m impressed by the data in rodent Parkinson’s models and the ability of exercise to promote neuroplasticity, to provide neuroprotection, and even offer neurorestoration. In human studies, the results are remarkably strong as well; showing that sustained aerobic exercise induces neuroplasticity in a damaged brain to improve overall brain health.

“Things don’t go wrong and break your heart so you can become bitter and give up. They happen to break you down and build you up so you can be all that you were intended to be.” Charles Jones

Neuroplasticity and physical activity on overall brain health in Parkinson’s. There is substantial scientific evidence that goal-directed aerobic exercise can improve and strengthen motor circuitry. This is due to structural modifications of synapses and overall improved brain health (increased blood flow, enhanced innate immune system and possibly neurogenesis). Overall brain health initiated by exercise-dependent neuroplasticity alters behavior (affecting many areas of the brain, e.g., the basal ganglia,  cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum). Ultimately, the net effect of sustained exercise and neuroplasticity results in improved motor skills, executive function, cognitive function and mood and motivation.  The diagram below illustrates the changes that can occur with exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s.


“Any man could, if he were so inclined, be the sculptor of his own brain.” Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Three comments on déjà vu, neuroplasticity  and physical activity in Parkinson’s:
#1,  Maybe you’re thinking that I’m 62 y.o. and just less coordinated on the golf course with or without Parkinson’s. No doubt this is true but I have my déjà vu feeling, there’s clearly some brain-body disconnect with Parkinson’s (I do need to keep practicing to get more consistent).
#2,  Exercise-induced neuroplasticity will not reverse the effects of Parkinson’s. However, many different studies suggest some restoration of brain circuitry due to exercise-induced neuroplasticity. This implies with time and effort to exercise one could somewhat improve motor learning and behavior performance.
#3, We have much to learn about neuroplasticity and yes even déjà vu. The brain is a powerful organ capable of many different changes when impacted by damage. As we further delineate the mechanism of exercise-induced neuroplasticity, we will better understand Parkinson’s.  Hopefully, from this research (some references are below), there exists the prospect of improved treatment of Parkinson’s. Always remember, a regular aerobic exercise program is good for both your heart and your brain.  Stay positive, be focused, remain hopeful and enjoy your daily exercise.

“Be patient toward all that is unsolved in your heart and try to love the questions themselves, like locked rooms and like books that are now written in a very foreign tongue. Do not now seek the answers, which cannot be given you because you would not be able to live them. And the point is, to live everything. Live the questions now. Perhaps you will then gradually, without noticing it, live along some distant day into the answer.” Rainer Maria Rilke

Cover Photo Credit:


Alberts JL, Linder SM, Penko AL, Lowe MJ, Phillips M. It is not about the bike, it is about the pedaling: forced exercise and Parkinson’s disease. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011;39(4):177–86. [PubMed]

Combs SA, Diehl MD, Staples WH, et al. Boxing Training for Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Case Series. Phys Ther. 2010;91(1):132–42. [PubMed]

Corcos DM, Comella CL, Goetz CG. Tai chi for patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(18):1737–8. [PubMed]

Farley BG, Koshland GF. Training BIG to move faster: the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson’s disease. Exp Brain Res. 2005;167(3):462–7. [PubMed]

Fisher BE, Wu AD, Salem GJ, et al. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(7):1221–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Fox CM, Ramig LO, Ciucci MR, Sapir S, McFarland DH, Farley BG. The science and practice of LSVT/LOUD: neural plasticity-principled approach to treating individuals with Parkinson disease and other neurological disorders. Semin Speech Lang. 2006;27(4):283–99. [PubMed]

Gajewski PD, Falkenstein M. Physical activity and neurocognitive functioning in aging – a condensed updated review. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. 2016;13:1. doi:10.1186/s11556-016-0161-3.

Hackney ME, Earhart GM. Effects of dance on movement control in Parkinson’s disease: a comparison of Argentine tango and American ballroom. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41(6):475–81. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Heremans E, Nackaerts E, Vervoort G, Broeder S, Swinnen SP, Nieuwboer A. Impaired Retention of Motor Learning of Writing Skills in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Freezing of Gait. Allodi S, ed. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(2):e0148933. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148933.

Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008;51(1):S225–39. [PubMed]

Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(6):511–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Petzinger GM, Fisher BE, McEwen S, Beeler JA, Walsh JP, Jakowec MW. Exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity targeting motor and cognitive circuitry in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 2013; 12(7):716–726. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70123-6 [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Voss MW, Vivar C, Kramer AF, van Praag H. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2013;17(10):525-544. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.08.001.