Exercise and Neuroprotection in Human Parkinson’s: The Long and Winding Road

"It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor." Marcus Tullius Cicero "Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being." Plato Introduction: I have been convinced for a while that exercise is medicine. This blog post summarizes two publications: Crotty, Grace F., and Michael A. Schwarzschild. "Chasing …

The Aging Immune System and Parkinson’s

"Come grow old with me. The best is yet to be." William Wordsworth "As long as I am breathing, in my eyes, I am just beginning." Criss Jami Introduction: Recently, an exciting and in-depth review article about inflammation and the immune system and their dysfunction in the pathway of Parkinson's was published. The citation for …

Role of Palmitoylethanolamide to Control Neuroinflammation and Potential Therapy for Parkinson’s

"Our destiny is not determined by the number of times we stumble but by the number of times we rise up, dust ourselves off, and move forward." Dieter F. Uchtdorf "My motto was always to keep swinging. Whether I was in a slump or feeling bad or having trouble off the field, the only thing …

Potential Anti-Aging and Neuroprotection Strategy for Parkinson’s

"The years teach much which the days never know." Ralph Waldo Emerson "Old age is not a disease - it is strength and survivorship, triumph over all kinds of vicissitudes and disappointments, trials and illnesses." Maggie Kuhn Introduction: This blog post presents a strategy to possibly reduce aging and it may also be neuroprotective in …

Basal Ganglia, Nigrostriatal Pathway and Parkinson’s

"Hope arouses, as nothing else can arouse, a passion for the possible." William Sloane Coffin "Walk on, walk on with hope in your heart, and you'll never walk alone, you'll never walk alone." Oscar Hammerstein II Introduction: I have been trying to learn more about brain physiology and the inner workings as it relates to …

Cytokines Linked to Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s

"Do the difficult things while they are easy and do the great things while they are small. A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step." Lao Tzu "When I let go of what I am, I become what I might be." Lao Tzu Introduction: There are many ways that Parkinson’s begins. …

Importance of Magnesium in the Brain and Magnesium Threonate is Neuroprotective in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s

"The world may be broken, but hope is not crazy." John Green "Our eternal message of hope is that dawn will come." Martin Luther King, Jr. Introduction:  Epidemiological studies show that magnesium deficiency is associated with a Parkinson's like syndrome called Parkinson-Dementia Syndrome (PDC). PDC patients have progressive cognitive decline, parkinsonian, and the loss of the …

Manganese-induced Parkinsonism Compared to Parkinson’s Disease

"Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Carl Sagan "Imagination is more important than knowledge." Albert Einstein What is Manganese? Manganese is abbreviated by the symbol Mn and it is atomic number 25 (see Periodic Table of the Elements).  Manganese is considered a transition metal, which is …

Human Gut Microbes Identified That Process Levodopa

"Symbiosis is a much higher reflection of intelligent life." Frederick Lenz "Why do we do basic research? To learn about ourselves." Walter Gilbert Overview: Reading the article entitled "Discovery and inhibition of an interspecies gut bacterial pathway for Levodopa metabolism" from V. Maini Rekdal et al., Science 364, eaau6323 (2019) (DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6323- open access) made …

Neurological Mayhem by Dual Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Agents in Aged Parkinson’s Mice

"No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave." Calvin Coolidge "The most reliable way to predict the future is to create it." Abraham Lincoln Introduction: Recently, Jeff Keegan asked me if I had seen the paper by Gil-Martínez et al., an established Parkinson's research group …

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