Category Archives: Wellness

Effect of Forgiveness on Health

“When you forgive, you in no way change the past – but you sure do change the future.”  Bernard Meltzer

“The first step in forgiveness is the willingness to forgive.” Marianne Williamson

Précis: Recently had a friend go through a difficult break-up from a marriage. The notion of getting past the failed relationship, achieving forgiveness, and moving on without causing illness was of paramount importance. The implications of forgiveness/unforgiveness as it relates to health-illness crossed my mind. It started with assembling the quotes in this post. Next, I did a Google Scholar search for “forgiveness and health” and discovered a whole new area of psychology-science-medicine (well, it was new to me). Most of us would agree that forgiving yourself promotes wellness; whereas remaining unforgiven could disrupt your mental and possibly even your physical health.  This post reviews forgiveness and its positive impact on our health.

“Forgiveness is really a gift to yourself – have the compassion to forgive others, and the courage to forgive yourself.” Mary Anne Radmach

Forgiveness and Health: The Oxford dictionary defines ‘forgive’ as to stop feeling angry and resentful towards (someone) for an offense, flaw, or mistake.  Positive psychology is the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive. Forgiveness is a big part of positive psychology regarding both physical and mental well-being.   Over the past 15 years, researchers have focused on 2 primary hypotheses: (1) forgiveness has important connections to physical health; and (2) this relationship is guided by an association between lack of forgiveness and anger.  Evidently, there is consensus in the field that these two primary processes form the basis of forgiveness: (i) letting go of one’s right to resentment and negative judgment; and (ii) fostering undeserved compassion and generosity toward the perpetrator.  The first process implies a person would reduce their negative emotions (i.e., anger and revenge); while  the second process involves increasing positive feelings and might even include reconciliation. Collectively, there is growing scientific evidence that links the positivity of forgiveness and health.

“He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love.” Martin Luther King, Jr.

“The more you know yourself, the more you forgive yourself.” Confucius

Forgiveness vs. Unforgiveness: It is probably apparent (to you) that forgiveness is generally associated with improved mental and physical health, as opposed to someone unable/unwilling to forgive.  Modeling the relationship between forgiveness and health, based on the hypothesis that forgiveness reduces hostility (and this would be considered healthier), 6 paths linking forgiveness and health have been described: (i) decrease in chronic blaming and anger; (2) reduction in chronic hyper-arousal [“a state of increased psychological and physiological tension marked by such effects as reduced pain tolerance, anxiety, exaggeration of startle responses, insomnia, fatigue and accentuation of personality traits.”]; (3) optimistic thinking; (4) self-efficacy to take health-related actions; (5) social support; and (6) transcendent consciousness (“state achieved through the practice of transcendental meditation in which the individual’s mind transcends all mental activity to experience the simplest form of awareness“).

What does this mean? The majority of studies on forgiveness indicate a reciprocal relationship to hostility, anger, anxiety and depression.  Forgiveness may directly alter sympathetic reactivity, which is often referred to as the “fight-or-flight” response. These responses include increases in heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and cortisol.  This implies that unforgiveness could promote an acute, stress-induced reactivity that could be associated with general health problems.  However, it is much more complicated than this simplistic flow of events: anger is a component of unforgiveness; anger is a health risk; therefore, unforgiveness is a health risk.  This is really interesting reading but way beyond my training as a protein biochemist (If interested, look over the references listed below)

Forgiveness and Mental Health: Let’s take a different angle by looking at mental health. We begin with unforgiveness as being associated with stress from an ‘interpersonal’ offense and stress is associated with diminished mental health. Furthermore, unforgiveness due to an ‘intrapersonal’ wrongdoing may lead to shame, regret and guilt, which could also negatively affect mental health. The positive impact of forgiveness may help correct the downturn in mental health that resulted from either interpersonal or intrapersonal stress.  In many instances, mental health is linked to physical health. This suggests that practicing forgiveness would positively influence mental health and could therein bolster physical health.

To summarize the ability of forgiveness to bolster mental health, I have re-drawn the figure from Toussaint and Webb  (2005) as a 4-piece puzzle. It begins with the ‘direct effect’ of forgiveness as told through unforgiveness with emotions of resentment, bitterness, hatred, residual hostility, and fear. The negative emotions of unforgiveness could contribute significantly to mental health problems.  By contrast, the emotion of forgiveness is positive and strong and love-based that could improve mental health. The ‘indirect effect’ of forgiveness through social support, interpersonal behavior and health behavior are all positively-linked to good mental health. The ‘developmental stage’ describes the recognition of the problem, need for an alternative solution, and ultimately the effect of forgiveness augments mental health.  Being able to forgive bolsters personal control of one’s life, which is perceived to be positive.  By contrast, unforgiveness blocks this life-controlling process by consumptive negative emotions made worse in the individual through rumination.  Due to my own internal word limit and time-period to read/understand the topic, I have not included the religious or spiritual basis of the forgiveness of God, feeling God’s forgiveness, and seeking God’s forgiveness in the narrative of this post.  For many people, these would be integral components to the discussion here on forgiveness and its overall impact on both mental and physical health.

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“I don’t know if I continue, even today, always liking myself. But what I learned to do many years ago was to forgive myself. It is very important for every human being to forgive herself or himself because if you live, you will make mistakes- it is inevitable. But once you do and you see the mistake, then you forgive yourself and say, ‘Well, if I’d known better I’d have done better,’ that’s all.” Maya Angelou

9 Steps to Forgiveness (Fred Luskin, LearningToForgive.com): Dr. Luskin is a noted-researcher in the field of forgiveness. His belief is that by practicing forgiveness, your anger, hurt, depression and stress will all be reduced and it will increase feelings of hope, compassion and self confidence. Furthermore, he believes that practicing forgiveness contributes to healthy relationships and to improved physical health; here are the 9 steps to forgiveness:

  1. Know exactly how you feel about what happened and be able to articulate what about the situation is not OK. Then, tell a trusted couple of people about your experience.
  2. Make a commitment to yourself to do what you have to do to feel better. Forgiveness is for you and not for anyone else.
  3. Forgiveness does not necessarily mean reconciliation with the person that hurt you, or condoning of their action. What you are after is to find peace. Forgiveness can be defined as the “peace and understanding that come from blaming that which has hurt you less, taking the life experience less personally, and changing your grievance story.”
  4. Get the right perspective on what is happening. Recognize that your primary distress is coming from the hurt feelings, thoughts and physical upset you are suffering now, not what offended you or hurt you two minutes – or ten years – ago. Forgiveness helps to heal those hurt feelings.
  5. At the moment you feel upset practice a simple stress management technique to soothe your body’s flight or fight response.
  6. Give up expecting things from other people, or your life, that they do not choose to give you. Recognize the “unenforceable rules” you have for your health or how you or other people must behave. Remind yourself that you can hope for health, love, peace and prosperity and work hard to get them.
  7. Put your energy into looking for another way to get your positive goals met than through the experience that has hurt you. Instead of mentally replaying your hurt seek out new ways to get what you want.
  8. Remember that a life well lived is your best revenge. Instead of focusing on your wounded feelings, and thereby giving the person who caused you pain power over you, learn to look for the love, beauty and kindness around you. Forgiveness is about personal power.
  9. Amend your grievance story to remind you of the heroic choice to forgive.

“Forgiving does not erase the bitter past. A healed memory is not a deleted memory. Instead, forgiving what we cannot forget creates a new way to remember. We change the memory of our past into a hope for our future.” Lewis B. Smedes

Forgiveness in the Presence of Parkinson’s:  Receiving a diagnosis of Parkinson’s, a lifelong chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder is a real shock.  The diagnosis comes with a variety of emotions. After a while, acceptance takes over; no, not your identify, just ok, I’ve got Parkinson’s, live through it, make the most of this experience. Eventually I had to put forgiveness into part of this living-life-equation. There were two self-involved events where I might have contributed to the development of my own disease.  The first was as a young boy in the summertime riding my bicycle behind the DDT trucks spraying for mosquitoes on our Air Force bases [Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline organochlorine known for its insecticidal properties]. DDT is one of the known chemical inducers of Parkinson’s. Second, in graduate school before OSHA took over regulating lab safety, I routinely used many different noxious compounds for the benefit of science and for the completion of my PhD. Both events caused me to pause and ponder; however, I decided to forgive myself. I truly believe had I remained unforgiving, I would have paved a path of ill health.

This whole process of dealing with the emotion from diagnosis to acceptance (and forgiveness) of Parkinson’s reminds me of the opening verse of “We Are The Champions” by Queen:
“I paid my dues/  time after time./ I’ve done my sentence/ but committed no crime./ And bad mistakes-/ I’ve made a few./ I’ve had my share of sand kicked in my face/ but I’ve come through./  (And I need to go on and on, and on, and on)

The vast majority of people with Parkinson’s are 60-years of age or older (although there is a group of early-age-onset). Interestingly, in a recent study with an elderly population, forgiveness showed positive and significant association with mental and physical health.

“You cannot travel back in time to fix your mistakes, but you can learn from them and forgive yourself for not knowing better.” Leon Brown

“Accept the past as past, without denying it or discarding it.” Mitch Albom

Forgive Ourselves: Dr. Elaine in her post “The-healing-power-of-forgiveness” nicely summarized self-forgiveness: “We tend to believe that forgiveness supports the transgression that has been committed against us. But forgiveness is not an endorsement of wrongdoing; rather, it’s an act of releasing the pain and hurt it caused through love, the root of forgiveness—and it is not love of the other but of the self. We must forgive ourselves as well as others in order to be whole and healed.”

“If we all hold on to the mistake, we can’t see our own glory in the mirror because we have the mistake between our faces and the mirror; we can’t see what we’re capable of being. You can ask forgiveness of others, but in the end the real forgiveness is in one’s own self.” Maya Angelou

Cover photo credit: https://orig05.deviantart.net/0a42/f/2015/095/1/6/painted_wallpaper___fog_on_lake_by_dasflon-d8oiudk

Useful References:

Lawler KA, Younger JW, Piferi RL, Jobe RL, Edmondson KA, Jones WH. The Unique Effects of Forgiveness on Health: An Exploration of Pathways. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2005;28(2):157-67. doi: 10.1007/s10865-005-3665-2.

Akhtar, S., Dolan, A., & Barlow, J. (2017). Understanding the Relationship Between State Forgiveness and Psychological Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(2), 450–463. http://doi.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/10.1007/s10943-016-0188-9

Lawler-Row KA, Karremans JC, Scott C, Edlis-Matityahou M, Edwards L. Forgiveness, physiological reactivity and health: The role of anger. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2008;68(1):51-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.01.001.

Rey L, Extremera N. Forgiveness and health-related quality of life in older people: Adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies as mediators. Journal of Health Psychology. 2016;21(12):2944-54. doi: 10.1177/1359105315589393. PubMed PMID: 26113528.

Toussaint, J.R. Webb.  Theoretical and empirical connections between forgiveness, mental health, and well-being E.L. Worthington Jr (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness, Brunner–Routledge, New York (2005), pp. 207-226

 

 

 

 

Parkinson’s Awareness Month: Greetings from North Carolina, USA

With Parkinson’s you have two choices: You can let it control you, or you can control it. And I’ve chosen to control it.” US Senator Isakson

“Perhaps I am stronger than I think.” Thomas Merton

Précis: A brief overview about Parkinson’s disease, highlights from our Moving Day NC Triangle Planning Committee during “Parkinson’s Disease Awareness Month”, and some interesting points about the State of North Carolina.

Parkinson’s disease overview:

“The strongest people are not those who show strength in front of us but those who win battles we know nothing about.” Anonymous

Parkinson’s disease awareness month: Parkinson’s awareness month is exactly that.  You simply start by making people around you familiar with this disorder.  And you can help others learn more about this neurodegenerative disease. Blake Tedder, our Parkinson’s Foundation Community Development Manager, has been busy.  He has been requesting/receiving proclamations recognizing and acknowledging the impact of Parkinson’s.  We will be thanking Blake for the rest of the year in his tireless effort on Parkinson’s disease; from all of us on the Moving Day planning committee, thank you Blake!

“We aren’t victims, we are strong, amazing people who just happen to have a crummy disease, and we want a cure to that disease”  Kate Matheson

Partial list of events where we have received proclamations (click here for the complete list- 2017PAM_Proclamations_final):

  • Town of Carrboro – Tuesday March 28th 7:30pm – Carrboro Town Hall, Carrboro
    Attending: Blake Tedder, National Parkinson Foundation
    Frank Church, PhD, UNC School of Medicine, Moving Day Planning committee, PWP;
  • Wake County – Monday April 3rd– 5:00pm – Wake Justice Building, Raleigh
    Attending: David E. Malarkey, DVM/PhD, Councilor, People with Parkinson’s Advisory Council, Parkinson’s Foundation;
  • Durham – Monday April 3rd– 7:00pm – Wake Justice Building, Raleigh
    Attending: Blake Tedder, MSW, National Parkinson Foundation
    Jeaninne Wagner, Moving Day Planning committee, PWP;
  • Orange County – Tuesday April 4th– 7:00pm – Whitted Building, Hillsborough
    Attending: Blake Tedder, MSW, National Parkinson Foundation
    Susan Gerbeth-Jones, MS, Orange County Resident, PWP;
  • Durham County – Tuesday April 11th– 7:00pm – Durham County Building/Main St, Durham|
    Attending: Blake Tedder, MSW, National Parkinson Foundation;
  • Town of Chapel Hill – Monday April 17th7:00pm – Chapel Hill Town Hall, Chapel Hill
    Attending: Blake Tedder, MSW, National Parkinson Foundation
    Frank Church, PhD, UNC School of Medicine, Moving Day Planning committee, PWP
    Jessica Shurer, MSW, Social Worker/Coordinator UNC Department of Neurology Movement Disorders Clinic;
  • Received via Mail or outside of a Formal Meeting:
    State of North Carolina – Governor Roy Cooper
    North Carolina Senate – Sen. Floyd McKissick
    Town of Cary –  Mayor Weinbrecht
    Town of Hillsborough – Mayor Tom Stevens
    City of Raleigh – Mayor Nancy MacFarlane

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“Chris[topher] Reeve wisely parsed the difference between optimism and hope. Unlike optimism, he said, ‘Hope is the product of knowledge and the projection of where the knowledge can take us.” Michael J. Fox

10-interesting points about North Carolina (click here for the complete list):

  • The University of North Carolina Chapel Hill is the oldest State University in the United States.
  • In 1903 the Wright Brothers made the first successful powered flight by man at Kill Devil Hill near Kitty Hawk. The Wright Memorial at Kitty Hawks now commemorates their achievement.
  • Mount Mitchell in the Blue Ridge Mountains is the highest peak east of the Mississippi. It towers 6,684 feet above sea level.
  • The first English colony in America was located on Roanoke Island. Walter Raleigh founded it. The colony mysteriously vanished with no trace except for the word “Croatoan” scrawled on a nearby tree.
  • High Point is known as the Furniture Capital of the World.
  • Babe Ruth hit his first home run in Fayetteville on March 7, 1914.
  • The Biltmore Estate in Ashville is America’s largest home, and includes a 255-room chateau, an award-winning winery and extensive gardens.
  • Pepsi was invented and first served in New Bern in 1898.
  • North Carolina leads the nation in furniture, tobacco, brick, and textile production.
  • Arnold Palmer recognized as the player whose aggressive play and winning personality raised golf to national attention, honed his skills on the championship golf team of Wake Forest University.

The State motto of North Carolina is “Esse quam videri” (To be rather than to seem),  which says be who you really are instead of who/how you want people to think you are.  Here is an editorial about our State motto (click here to read it).

A few closing personal comments about North Carolina: I was 24 years old in 1978 when I moved to Raleigh, North Carolina to begin working on my PhD.  Thirty-nine years later, I still call North Carolina home.  For 35 years I’ve been in Chapel Hill and working at UNC-Chapel Hill.  This is a beautiful state, with mountains on the western edge and the ocean on the eastern side.  We are quite blessed geographically.  We seem to be a ‘melting-pot’ for many from the northeast, midwest and western states to move here for career or to retire.  I really think we have nice 4-season weather (usually). The pictures below highlight just a few areas: beaches, mountains, beautiful downtown skyline of Charlotte, and the town of Chapel Hill (which changes dramatically when UNC-CH wins a national basketball championship).  I’ve been branded the ‘northerner of my family’ (my roots are in Louisiana and Alabama), but I’ve grown to really enjoy calling North Carolina home.  

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“Always remember, your life matters now with Parkinson’s as much as it did before Parkinson’s. Stay hopeful as you navigate adversity, stay you in spite of your Parkinson’s.” Frank C. Church

Cover photo credit: wallpapersdsc.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Red-Tulips-Pictures.jpg

Composite: s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/40/4d/cd/404dcd87a0a3584e1d882ac6083baa3b.jpg

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http://www.charlottesgotalot.com/charlotte-skyline-5

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9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s

“A willing mind makes a hard journey easy.” Philip Massinger

“Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being.” Plato

Introduction: Much of my life has been spent exercising. Most of this exercise has been done with sheer delight.  Since receiving my Parkinson’s diagnosis, my opinion of exercise has changed.  With Parkinson’s, I’m now exercising as if my life depends on it.  Why?  Animal models (mouse and rat) of Parkinson’s have convincing shown the effect of exercise-induced neuroplasticity.  These animal studies demonstrated neuroprotection and even neurorestoration of Parkinson’s.  But we’re neither mice/rats nor are we an animal model of Parkinson’s disease; thus, this post is an update on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s.

“If you don’t do what’s best for your body, you’re the one who comes up on the short end.” Julius Erving

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9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s: Neuroplasticity,  neuroprotection and neurorestoration are catchy words that populate a lot of publications, blogs from many of us with Parkinson’s and from professionals who study/work in the field of Parkinson’s.  It is important for you to develop your own opinion about exercise-induced neuroplasticity. My goal in this post is to provide the basic elements, concepts and key reference material to help you with this opinion. Here is a 1-page summary of “9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s” (click here to download page).

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(1) Parkinson’s Disease (PD): Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disorder. Parkinson’s usually presents as a movement disorder, which is a slow progressive loss of motor coordination, gait disturbance, slowness of movement, rigidity, and tremor.  Parkinson’s can also include cognitive/psychological impairments. ~170 people/day are diagnosed with Parkinson’s in the USA; the average age of onset is ~60 years-old.

(2) Safety First: The benefit of an exercise routine/program will only work if you have (i) talked about it with your Neurologist and have his/her consent; (ii) you have received advice from a physical therapist/certified personal trainer about which exercises are ‘best’ for you; and (iii) you recognize that PD usually comes with gait and balance issues, and you are ready to begin. Safety first, always stay safe!

(3) Exercise: Exercise is activity requiring physical effort, carried out especially to sustain or improve health and fitness. Exercise is viewed by movement disorders clinicians, physical therapists, and certified personal trainers as a key medicinal ingredient in both treating and enabling patients at all stages of Parkinson’s.

(4) Brain Health: With or without Parkinson’s disease, taking care of your brain is all-important to your overall well-being, life-attitude, and health. For a balanced-healthy brain, strive for: proper nutrition and be cognitively fit; exercise; reduce stress; work and be mentally alert; practice mindfulness/meditation; sleep; and stay positive.

(5) Neuroplasticity: Neuroplasticity describes how neurons in the brain compensate for injury/disease and adjust their actions in response to environmental changes. “Forced-use exercise” of the more affected limb/side can be effective in driving neural network adaptation.  Ultimately, this can lead to improved function of the limb/side.

(6) Synapses are junctions between two nerve cells whereby neurotransmitters diffuse across small gaps to transmit and receive signals.

(7) Circuitry: A key result of neuroplasticity is the re-routing of neuronal pathways of the brain along which electrical and chemical signals travel in the central nervous system (CNS).

(8) Parkinson’s-specific Exercise Programs:
PWR!Moves (click here to learn more)
Rock Steady Boxing (click here to learn more)
LSVT BIG (click here to learn more)
Dance for PD (click here to learn more)
LIM Yoga (click here to learn more)
Tai Chi for PD (click here to learn more)

What types of exercise are best for people with Parkinson’s disease? Here is a nice overview of the benefits of exercise for those of us with Parkinson’s  (click here). Regarding the PD-specific exercise programs,  I am most familiar with PWR!Moves, Rock Steady Boxing and LSVT BIG (I’m certified to teach PWR!Moves, I’m a graduate of LSVT BIG, and I’ve participated in Rock Steady Boxing). A goal for you is to re-read ‘Safety First’ above and begin to decide which type of exercise you’d benefit from and would enjoy the most.

(9) Brain/Behavior Changes: The collective results found increase in corticomotor excitability, increase in brain grey matter volume, increase in serum BDNF levels, and decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. These results imply that neuroplasticity from exercise may potentially either slow or halt progression of Parkinson’s.

What the terms mean: Corticomotor describes motor functions controlled by the cerebral cortex (people with Parkinson’s show reduced corticomotor excitability). Brain grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system consisting of neuronal cells, myelinated and unmyelinated axons, microglial cells, synapses, and capillaries. BDNF is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is a protein involved in brain plasticity and it is important for survival of dopaminergic neurons. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine (protein) that is involved in systemic inflammation.  Some studies of exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s found the above-mentioned changes, which would imply a positive impact of exercise to promote neuroplastic changes.

What can you do with all of the cited articles listed at the end? Compiled below are some comprehensive and outstanding reviews about exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s.  Looking through these papers, you’ll see years of work, but this work has all of the details to everything I’ve described.

“All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better.” Ralph Waldo Emerson

What I believe about neuroplasticity and exercise in Parkinson’s: [Please remember I am not a physician; definitely talk with your neurologist before beginning any exercise program.]  I think about exercising each day; I try to do it on a daily basis.  As a scientist, I’m impressed by the rodent Parkinson’s data and how exercise promotes neuroplasticity. The human studies are also believable; sustained aerobic exercise induces neuroplasticity to improve overall brain health. “Forced-use exercise” is an important concept; I try to work my right-side (arm and leg), which are slightly weaker and stiffer from Parkinson’s. Initially, I used my left arm more, now I ‘force’ myself on both sides with the hope my neural network is stabilized or even improving. If you enjoy exercising as I do, I view it as both an event and a reward; ultimately, I believe it can work and improve my response to Parkinson’s. If you don’t enjoy exercising, this may be more of a task and duty; however, the benefits over time can be better health. Exercise is good for you (heart and brain).  Begin slow, make progress, and see if you are living better with your disorder.  Remain hopeful and be both persistent and positive; try to enjoy your exercise.

“I am not afraid of storms for I am learning how to sail my ship.” Louisa May Alcott

Past blog posts: Both exercise itself and the benefit of exercise-induced neuroplasticity have been common themes for this blog, including (click on title to view blog posting):
Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s;
Déjà Vu and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s;
Golf And Parkinson’s: A Game For Life;
The Evolving Portrait of Parkinson’s;
Believe In Big Movements Of LSVT BIG Physical Therapy For Parkinson’s;
Meditation, Yoga, and Exercise in Parkinson’s;
Exercise and Parkinson’s.

“Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do.” John Wooden

References on neuroplasticity and exercise in Parkinson’s:
Farley, B. G. and G. F. Koshland (2005). “Training BIG to move faster: the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson’s disease.” Exp Brain Res 167(3): 462-467 (click here to view paper).

Fisher, B. E., et al. (2008). “The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson’s disease.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89(7): 1221-1229 (click here to view paper).

Hirsch, M. A. and B. G. Farley (2009). “Exercise and neuroplasticity in persons living with Parkinson’s disease.” Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 45(2): 215-229 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2010). “Enhancing neuroplasticity in the basal ganglia: the role of exercise in Parkinson’s disease.” Mov Disord 25 Suppl 1: S141-145 (click here to view paper).

Bassuk, S. S., et al. (2013). “Why Exercise Works Magic.” Scientific American 309(2): 74-79.

Lima, L. O., et al. (2013). “Progressive resistance exercise improves strength and physical performance in people with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review.” Journal of Physiotherapy 59(1): 7-13 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2013). “Exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity targeting motor and cognitive circuitry in Parkinson’s disease.” Lancet Neurol 12(7): 716-726 (click here to view paper)..

Ebersbach, G., et al. (2015). “Amplitude-oriented exercise in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized study comparing LSVT-BIG and a short training protocol.” J Neural Transm (Vienna) 122(2): 253-256 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2015). “The Effects of Exercise on Dopamine Neurotransmission in Parkinson’s Disease: Targeting Neuroplasticity to Modulate Basal Ganglia Circuitry.” Brain Plast 1(1): 29-39 (click here to view paper).

Abbruzzese, G., et al. (2016). “Rehabilitation for Parkinson’s disease: Current outlook and future challenges.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 22 Suppl 1: S60-64 (click here to view paper).

Hirsch, M. A., et al. (2016). “Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s disease: What is the evidence telling us?” Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 22, Supplement 1: S78-S81 (click here to view paper)

Tessitore, A., et al. (2016). “Structural connectivity in Parkinson’s disease.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 22 Suppl 1: S56-59 (click here to view paper).

“If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health.” Hippocrates

“Life is complex. Each one of us must make his own path through life. There are no self-help manuals, no formulas, no easy answers. The right road for one is the wrong road for another…The journey of life is not paved in blacktop; it is not brightly lit, and it has no road signs. It is a rocky path through the wilderness.” M. Scott Peck

Cover photo credit: http://paper4pc.com/free-seascape.html#gal_post_55564_free-seascape-wallpaper-1.jpg

Brain exercising cartoon: http://tactustherapy.com/neuroplasticity-stroke-survivors/

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The 23andMe Parkinson’s Research Study

“Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.” Carl Sagan

“A dream doesn’t become reality through magic; it takes sweat, determination and hard work.” Colin Powell

Introduction/Background: Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It evolves slowly, usually starting as either stiffness in a hand or a small tremor. Over time, Parkinson’s progresses; typically characterized by motor symptoms such as slowness of movement (bradykinesia) with rigidity, resting tremor (Parkinsonian tremor), balance and walking problems, and difficulty swallowing and talking. Parkinson’s has several non-motor symptoms including anxiety, depression, insomnia  and psychosis (just to mention a few). ~60,000 new cases of Parkinson’s disease are diagnosed each year in the United States, adding to the greater than one million people who currently have Parkinson’s.  It has been estimated that 7-10 million people worldwide are living with Parkinson’s.

“Enclose your heart in times of need with the steel of your determination and your strength. In doing this, all things will be bearable.” Lora Leigh

Genetic Testing and Introduction/Background to 23andMe:
What is the “Central Dogma of Life”? (click here) The process of how the information and instructions found in DNA to become a functional protein is termed the ‘Central Dogma’.  The concept of the central dogma was first proposed in 1958 by Francis Crick, one of the discoverers of the structure of DNA. The central dogma states that the pattern of information that occurs most frequently in our cells is as follows: (i) use existing DNA to make new DNA  (replication); (ii) next, from DNA to make new RNA (transcription); and (iii) finally, using RNA to synthesize new protein (translation). The drawing below depicts the central dogma (the drawing is from this video, click here).


23andMe: What does the name 23andMe represent? Our genetic material  (genes) are housed in chromosomes and they are composed of DNA. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell capable of producing new proteins; thus, the name of the company makes sense.  23andMe provides DNA testing services.  The information derived from studying your DNA and genetic make-up can provide information about your ancestry, your genetic predisposition to many different diseases, drug responses and inherited conditions.

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“When burned on a CD, the human genome is smaller than Microsoft Office.” Steve Jurvetson

There’s an old saying that goes “Mother is always right.”:  My mother said for her entire life that we were English, Scottish (or Irish), French and German in our ancestral ‘gene pool’.  Several years ago, my extended family and I took to spitting into the 23andMe test-tubes.  We mailed them back to the company to establish our genetic history and screen our family gene pool for several diseases and their inherited susceptibility. Guess what?  Mom was absolutely right about our family ancestry.  Interestingly, there was no evidence of early onset Parkinson’s in my extended family; thus, my disorder is the sporadic/idiopathic type of Parkinson’s.

“A mother’s love for her child is like nothing else in the world. It knows no law, no pity, it dares all things and crushes down remorselessly all that stands in its path.” Agatha Christie

The 23andMe Parkinson’s research study: A few years ago, 23andMe decided to better understand the genetics of Parkinson’s disease; thus, the Parkinson’s research initiative.  Their goal is as follows: to understand the genetic associations found between Parkinson’s patients’ DNA and our disease; to take this new knowledge and search for a cure; and ultimately, they strive to enhance and speed-up how Parkinson’s disease is studied to better understand the genetics of the disease (click here to read further details) It’s easy to get involved in the 23andMe Parkinson’s research study, here are the eligibility requirements: (1) You have been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease by a qualified physician; (2) You are willing to submit a saliva sample for DNA testing and complete online surveys related to your condition; (3) You have access to the internet; and (4) You are at least 18 years old.  The flow-chart below shows all one has to do to join this community of people-with-Parkinson’s helping out to search for a cure.
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23andMe has an impressive group of  primary research partners and several other organizations as supporting partners, see below. To date, more than 10,000 people have agreed to be in 23andMe’s Parkinson’s Research Community, which makes it the world’s largest collective of genotyped Parkinson’s patients. Furthermore, many thousands of people without Parkinson’s have also consented to participate in these research studies.

16.07.21.2 “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought.” Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

It’s a personal decision and choice, but it’s also advancing our knowledge of Parkinson’s:  If you have concerns, look over the 3 websites cited below.  The question is should you volunteer your DNA for the study?  Should you consent to have your DNA further sequenced?  And the nice thing about being involved is you don’t have to leave your home to participate; it’s an in-house study in that they mail you the tube/device, you spit into it, and mail it back to 23andMe.  Simple. Valuable. Straightforward. Elegant.  Contributing. Joining the Parkinson’s team.

7 Things You Should Know About The Future Of Your Genetic Data (click here)
23andMe DNA Test Review: It’s Right For Me But Is It Right for You? (click here)
DNATestingChoice.com (click here for a review of 23andMe)

Ponder it, think about it some more, possibly fill out the questionnaire, upload the information, you are now part of the Parkinson’s 23andMe team. Why should you participate? You will be providing your own small piece to the Parkinson’s genetic puzzle; help complete the assembly of the landscape to this amazing puzzle.

You will matter whether you participate or not; you will always matter.  However, congratulate yourself if you decide to join the team; the 23andMe Parkinson’s research study.  You can be part of the unraveling and the delineation of the genetic anomalies that cause Parkinson’s.

“It is ironic that in the same year we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of DNA, some would have us ban certain forms of DNA medical research. Restricting medical research has very real human consequences, measured in loss of life and tremendous suffering for patients and their families.” Michael J. Fox

Cover photo credit: http://www.hdwallpapersact.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/ summer-sunset-on-beach-hd.jpg

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The Evolving Portrait of Parkinson’s

“Aging is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength.” Betty Friedane

 “If we own the story then we can write the ending.” Brené Brown

Précis:  To showcase the amazing art/photography/videography of Anders M. Leines who lives in Norway, which gives me the opportunity to voice an opinion about the emerging picture/image of Parkinson’s today.

World Parkinson Congress (WPC) Promo Video: Please watch this video, it’s powerful; “This is Parkinson’s” a WPC Promo from Anders M. Leines (either view it below or click here).  Anders is a videographer and cameraman who works in Oslo, Norway; he’s been diagnosed with young onset Parkinson’s. One of his goals is to change the view about how Parkinson’s is perceived by the world.  One look at his video reinforces this notion.  A very nice article about Mr. Leines was recently posted in “Parkinson’s Life” (click here to read this story).  Anders also shares his story with his own blog “This is Parkinson`s” – The Exhibition.  The pictures, the script, and the music accompanying the WPC 2016 Promo by Mr. Leines says more in 1 min 42 sec about Parkinson’s than someone could likely summarize by writing a blog post, but nonetheless I’m going to try.

A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles.” Christopher Reeve

The Historical Perception of Parkinson’s: Sir Richard Gowers, in 1886, used this drawing (below left panel) to depict a person with Parkinson’s. When you perform a Google search for a ‘picture of Parkinson’s disease’, these sorts of images are still very prevalent. Yes, the average age of someone with Parkinson’s is 60 years of age and older. And yes, Sir Gowers does accurately show the Cardinal signs of Parkinson’s: tremor, rigidity from muscle stiffness, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), postural instability, and masking (reduced facial expression).  Furthermore, Dr. Charcot’s  drawings, from 1888, also depict a typical Parkinson’s patient compared to an atypical patient with Parkinson’s (bottom right panel).  While these drawings are accurate, these images portray to many who see them that all people-with-Parkinson’s must look and act like this. 

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“In all human affairs there are efforts, and there are results, and the strength of the effort is the measure of the result.” James Allen

The Emerging Perception of Parkinson’s: The reality today is that available treatment strategy and approach to life for someone with Parkinson’s are very different than what was possible for the people portrayed by Sir Gowers and Dr. Charcot. Today, we have well-trained neurologists that are specialists in movement disorders. We have a growing appreciation and understanding of the pathology and biology of Parkinson’s disease.  We have learned about vital lifestyle changes needed to thrive in the presence of this disorder. We have a growing list of therapies [both traditional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)] to treat Parkinson’s; we even have deep brain surgery (this surgical technique itself is undergoing new advances and is further evolving in its attempt to control/modify symptoms). We have an increased awareness of the importance of exercise to try to slow progression of this disorder. There is clearly a subset of people with Parkinson’s that present at an earlier age than 60 years old (and this is what Mr. Leines and his exhibition is highlighting).   No doubt, we are living longer and we are likely healthier than someone from the 1880’s; however, that also implies we’re living more years with our Parkinson’s.

This is not saying that Parkinson’s today is either a benign or a tame disease; in fact, it’s an insidious disorder.  Having Parkinson’s is like trying to get rid of cockroaches in your house.  You’ve done all you can to eliminate the roaches from your home, and you don’t see them for weeks; subsequently one day, they’re back. Likewise, Parkinson’s creeps around in the background of your daily life by stealthily altering physical/movement functions, by slowly uncoupling your crucial autonomic nervous system, and surreptitiously in ~50% of people with the disorder, they can develop psychotic tendencies.  The image of Parkinson’s today is clearly evolving due to improved treatment, better understanding of the disorder itself, and improved strategies for living with it; however, under any guise it is still a disagreeable disorder.

“With everything that has happened to you, you can either feel sorry for yourself or treat what has happened as a gift. Everything is either an opportunity to grow or an obstacle to keep you from growing. You get to choose.” Wayne Dyer

A Change is Happening in Our Perspective of Parkinson’s Today:  It is my belief that the perception of Parkinson’s today has changed and is becoming much different than the historical views as described above. I truly believe that the effort most people are using to handle their disorder puts them in a healthier and better lifestyle to manage their symptoms. An emerging predominate picture of Parkinson’s today is a person striving to live strongly. They’ve embraced the appropriate lifestyle, and they are trying their hardest to not become as depicted by the images from the 1800’s. When you do a Google search for ‘images of Parkinson’s disease 2016’, you will likely find more positive and dynamic pictures of people similar to those portrayed by Mr. Leines.

“Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal. My strength lies solely in my tenacity.” Louis Pasteur

A Personal Perspective of Parkinson’s Today: With the “This is Parkinson’s” video from Anders M. Leines as an inspiration, I’ve included two sets of pictures of my life with Parkinson’s (photos are below). If my disorder fully progresses, and it is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, in advanced age (I’m currently 62 years old) I may possibly appear like the drawings above from Sir Gowers and Dr. Charcot. However, as a research scientist, I truly believe in the words of Dr. Claude Levi-Strauss who said “The scientist is not a person who gives the right answers, he is one who asks the right questions.”  I am trying to improve my own knowledge about Parkinson’s; after all, there are still so many questions I want to ask, there are so many new scientific advances that I need to better understand, and there are some emerging treatment strategies that I’d be willing to consider in the future. In other words, Parkinson’s is a reluctant and unwelcome visitor in my body and I’m doing as much as I can to manage the disorder.

With substantial effort, I’m going to do all I can to resist progression; I’m going to stay hopeful, be positive, and remain persistent for many years to come. Importantly, I will take time to stretch every few hours and really make an effort to exercise every day. I will try harder to get an adequate amount of sleep every night.  I am also trying to be mindful and live within the moment by not fretting about what the future could bring.

Thus, this is what I consider to be true of myself (many other people with Parkinson’s would also fit this description): I’m a healthy person that just happens to have Parkinson’s. As I’ve said before, we both have much left to accomplish. We are both still here. Stay focused and stay hopeful.

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“We live in a time when the words impossible and unsolvable are no longer part of the scientific community’s vocabulary. Each day we move closer to trials that will not just minimize the symptoms of disease and injury but eliminate them.” Christopher Reeve

Cover photo credit: http://epod.usra.edu/.a/6a0105371bb32c970b015438c5312a970c-pi

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Chapter 9: A Parkinson’s Reading Companion on Journey

“Accept what comes. In fact, be grateful for it. Be the one who sees opportunity in any circumstance, the one who doesn’t blink when looking into fate’s eyes.” (from a dear friend of a classmate, Carolyn Huang)

“It matters not what someone is born, but what they grow to be” J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire

Précis: “Thought-filled Responses” is a part of my undergraduate course, “Biology of Blood Diseases”; students submitted quotes on (five or more) hope, courage, journey, persistence, positivity, strength, adversity, mindfulness, and life (for further details click here). The current post is Chapter 9 including all of their quotes about ‘journey’ [click here to read Chapter 1 (hope); click here to read Chapter 2 (life); click here to read Chapter 3 (strength); click here to read Chapter 4 (adversity); click here to read Chapter 5 (positivity); click here to read Chapter 6 (courage); click here to read Chapter 7 (persistence); click here to read Chapter 8 (mindfulness)].

The Journey With Parkinson’s: There is no doubt that we are all on a journey with life, with differing destinations and widely varied paths.  When I think about living with Parkinson’s, I  feel it’s somewhat analogous to white water rafting (e.g., rafting the New or Lower Gauley Rivers in West Virginia): sometimes you’re paddling fiercely without going forward; yet a few minutes later you are not paddling and you can relax and enjoy the view; and then your team is paddling in sync as you progress down the river through its many changing rapids. The  obstacles of this disorder are always present and our journey will be a challenge. The journey with Parkinson’s requires effort, teamwork, awareness, and a heart-fueled positive attitude to keep going. May these quotes on journey inspire you to live-positively as you strive for wellness in the presence of Parkinson’s .

Journey:  I am pleased to present Chapter 9 about journey with my co-authors: Angle, Hannah; Arthur, Kallie; Artov, Michael; Bagley, Kendall; Batista, Kayla; Blaylock, Allison; Byrd, Emory; Cabell, Grant; Catalano, Michael; Clark, Kendall; Cossaart, Kristen; Culpepper, Houston; Das, Snigdha; Davis, Eric; Defazio, Stephanie; Doudnikoff, Alex; Dua, Shawn; Evans, Jessica; Evick, Andrew; Farooque, Tazeen; Ford, Kelsey; German, Zachary; Gouveia, Katie; Hall, Nikita; Isler, Victoria; Kirkley, Joel; Koutleva, Elitza; Laudun, Katie; Le, Kevin; Little, Sarah; Mackey, Josselyn; Macon, Briana; Maddox, Kaity; Marquino, Grace; Mattox, Daniel; Mcknight, Kyle; Mcmanus, Brenna; Mcshane, Sarah; Monkiewicz, Caroline; Nguyen, Michelle; Nguyen, Teresa; Olinger, Emily; Patel, Darshan; Patel, Dilesh; Patel, Jenny; Perez, Abby; Peters, Daniel; Quirin, Julia; Rawlins, Shelby; Raynor, Nathan; Renn, Matt; Scott, Alicia; Sherry, Alex; Shin, Christine; Stanton, Kate; Story, Charlotte; Swango, Summer; Szyperski, Caroline; Windley, Taylor; Wooley, Caleb; Xu, Alice; Yang, Michelle.

“And when you get the choice to sit it out or dance, I hope you dance.” Lee Ann Womack

“I can’t change the direction of the wind, but I can adjust my sails to always reach my destination.” Jimmy Dean

“Never let your memories be greater than your dreams.” Doug Ivester

“The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.” Mahatma Gandhi

“It is never too late to be what you might have been.” George Eliot

“We delight in the beauty of the butterfly, but rarely admit the changes it has gone through to achieve that beauty.” Maya Angelou

“All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given to us.”  J.R.R. Tolkien

”Do not spoil what you have by desiring what you have not; but remember that what you now have was once among the things you only hoped for.” Epicurus

“The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” Lao Tzu

“Change is inevitable. Growth is optional”  John Maxwell

“Little by little, one travels far.” J.R. Tolkien

“Do not follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go.” T.S. (Thomas Stearns) Eliot

Every man dies, not every man truly lives.” William Wallace

“Life is a journey to be experienced, not a problem to be solved.” Winnie the Pooh

“Anything in life worth doing is worth overdoing, moderation is for cowards.” -Ballad of the frogman (Navy SEALs thing)

“Life is a journey, not a destination.” Ralph Waldo Emerson.

“You take people, you put them on a journey, you give them peril, you find out who they really are.” Joss Whedon

“Let our hearts and hands be stretched out in compassion toward others, for everyone is walking his or her own difficult path.” Dieter F Uchtdorf

“There are far better things ahead than any we leave behind.” C.S. Lewis

“To get through the hardest journey, we only need to take one step at a time, but we must keep stepping.” Rachel Kennedy

“There are no shortcuts to anywhere worth going.” Anonymous

“Life’s a roller coaster. You can either scream every time there is a bump, or you can throw your hands up and enjoy the ride.” Unknown

“Never to suffer would never to have been blessed.”  Edgar Allan Poe

“You never know what’s around the corner. It could be everything or it could be nothing. You keep putting one foot in front of the other and then one day you look back and you’ve climbed a mountain.” Anonymous

“All that is gold does not glitter. Not all those who wander are lost. The old that is strong does not wither, deep roots are not reached by the frost.” JRR Tolkein

“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.” Winston Churchill

“Faith is taking the first step even when you don’t see the whole staircase.” Martin Luther King, Jr.

“In the end, people don’t view their life as merely the average of all its moments—which, after all, is mostly nothing much plus some sleep. For human beings, life is meaningful because it is a story. A story has a sense of a whole, and its arc is determined by the significant moments, the ones where something happens. Measurements of people’s minute-by-minute levels of pleasure and pain miss this fundamental aspect of human existence. A seemingly happy life maybe empty. A seemingly difficult life may be devoted to a great cause. We have purposes larger than ourselves.” Atul Gawande, Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End

“It is good to have an end to journey towards, but it is the journey that matters, in the end.” Ursula Le Guin

“If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” Lewis Carrol

“Press forward. Do not stop, do not linger in your journey, but strive for the mark set before you.” George Whitefield

“And above all, watch with glittering eyes the whole world around you because the greatest secrets are always hidden in the most unlikely places. Those who don’t believe in magic will never find it.” Roald Dahl

“Beware of Destination Addiction – a preoccupation with the idea that happiness is in the next place, the next job, and with the next partner. Until you give up the idea that happiness is somewhere else, it will never be where you are.” Robert Holden

“Don’t be scared to walk alone. Don’t be scared to like it.” John Mayer

“It is good to have an end to journey toward; but it is the journey that matters, in the end.” Ernest Hemingway

“The temptation to quit will be greatest just before you are about to succeed.” Chinese Proverb

“Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.”
Robert Frost

“We don’t receive wisdom; we must discover it for ourselves after a journey that no one can take for us or spare us.” Marcel Proust

“I am fated to journey hand in hand with my strange heroes and to survey the surging immensity of life, to survey it through the laughter that all can see and through the tears unseen and unknown by anyone.” Nikolai Gogol

“If my ship sails from sight, it doesn’t mean my journey ends, it simply means the river bends.” Enoch Powell

“A good traveler has no fixed plans, and is not intent on arriving.” Lao Tzu

“You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself any direction you choose. You’re on your own. And you know what you know. And YOU are the one who’ll decide where to go…” -Dr. Seuss’ Oh, the Places You’ll Go! 

Cover photo credit: http://www.free-hdwallpapers.com/wallpapers/nature3/71540-nature-974.jpg

Parkinson’s Awareness Month: Quotes About Parkinson’s Disease

“I was taught to strive not because there were any guarantees of success but because the act of striving is in itself the only way to keep faith with life.” Madeleine Albright

“This is where it all begins. Everything starts here, today.” David Nicholls

Introduction: What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson’s is a motor system disorder that results from the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. Parkinson’s has 4 main symptoms: rigidity (stiffness of the limbs and trunk); bradykinesia (slowness of movement); postural instability (impaired balance and coordination); and tremor (trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face).  Other symptoms may include: depression; difficulty in swallowing and speaking; urinary problems or constipation; and sleep disruptions.  Parkinson’s usually affects people over the age of 60.  There are ~1 million people in the USA living with Parkinson’s.  The symptoms of Parkinson’s occur gradually over several years, which sometimes makes it difficult to diagnose. How do you describe the typical rate of progression? Parkinson’s is not like sticking your hand into a hornet’s nest and the resultant instantaneous stings; it’s more like being covered in beach sand at low tide while you patiently wait for the slowly approaching ocean’s high tide. How do you feel living with Parkinson’s?  Living with Parkinson’s is like trying to see with having only one of your contact lenses in your eyes or trying to walk wearing shoes with one broken heel; both are manageable but they each present obstacles to overcome.

35 Quotes about Parkinson’s and Wellness-Illness:  For 2016, I would like to begin Parkinson’s Awareness Month with a series of quotes about Parkinson’s and wellness-illness. After you read one, close your eyes and imagine what it’d be like from the standpoint of the author of the quote. Put yourself in their shoes.  The vast majority of quotes included here have an underpinning of hope, positivity and persistence in living with Parkinson’s; however, a few quotes will help you appreciate the wickedness of  this disorder.

  1. “There’s an idea I came across a few years ago that I love. My happiness grows in direct proportion [to] my acceptance and in inverse proportion to my expectations. That’s the key for me. If I can accept the truth of ‘This is what I’m facing — not what can I expect but what I am experiencing now’ — then I have all this freedom to do other things.” Michael J. Fox
  2. “The longer I had the disease and was moving around the planet, I realized people were just waiting for this ethereal cure to happen….And I fairly quickly realized that waiting was too passive. If you’re waiting, you’re just declining and not taking charge of your own well-being….We wanted to empower them not to wait for a cure that might or might not come, but to embrace their disease and live better.” Davis Phinney
  3. “Do not confuse my bad days as a sign of weakness. Those are actually the days I’m fighting my hardest.”Anonymous
  4. “We may each have our own individual Parkinson’s, but we all share one thing in common. Hope” Michael J. Fox
  5. “I’m going to be totally honest with you. Dealing with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s is not easy and there is no one, single technique that will ease the pain and no magic pill that will miraculously enable you to cope with it. However … I sincerely hope that you are able to come to terms with the diagnosis and perhaps even come to view it as a positive life-changing experience.” John Baxter
  6. “The Heart of a Warrior: Persistence in the face of adversity; courage to face the unknown; purposeful intent to live wholeheartedly; courageous exploration of one’s weaknesses and strengths within the context of personal integration and consistent evolution toward personal growth.” Barbara Seelig
  7. “How do we wrestle with this beast? Living with an incurable disease like Parkinson’s is very different from living with a terminal illness. This is a disease you’re going to live with for a very long time. You really have to make peace with it.” Connie Carpenter-Phinney
  8. “My way of dealing with Parkinson’s is to keep myself busy and ensure my mind is always occupied.” David Riley
  9. “The first thing I read after being diagnosed on the internet was Parkinson’s attacks the mind, body and the spirit. There is one thing that treats all three and that’s hope. That’s very true, you have to live with hope.” Gordon Adai
  10. With Parkinson’s, exercise is better than taking a bottle of pills. If you don’t do anything you’ll just stagnate.” Brian Lambert
  11. “Strength does not come from winning. Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide not to surrender, that is strength.” Arnold Schwarzenegger
  12. “With Parkinson’s you have two choices: You can let it control you, or you can control it. And I’ve chosen to control it.” US Senator Isakson
  13. “You do not need to know precisely what is happening, or exactly where it is all going. What you need is to recognize the possibilities and challenges offered by the present moment, and to embrace them with courage, faith and hope.” Thomas Merton
  14. “I often say now I don’t have any choice whether or not I have Parkinson’s, but surrounding that non-choice is a million other choices that I can make.”  Michael J. Fox
  15. “It’s probably my job to tell you life isn’t fair, but I figure you already know that. So instead, I’ll tell you that hope is precious, and you’re right not to give up.” C.J. Redwine
  16. “Instead of fighting with Parkinson’s and it’s debilitating symptoms, patients, and their families are better served to find new ways to live a full life.” Amy Donaldson
  17. “Courage doesn’t always roar. Sometimes courage is the little voice at the end of the day that says I’ll try again tomorrow.” Mary Anne Radmacher
  18. “When a friend or family member is diagnosed with Parkinson’s, there are many battles that need to be tackled. Most importantly, support, love and understanding are imperative for the sufferer, the carer and the families…. Do a lot of encouraging and try your hardest to continue on in a normal way.” Gabriella Rogers
  19. “Perhaps I am stronger than I think.” Thomas Merton“
  20. “For everything this disease has taken, something with greater value has been given–sometimes just a marker that points me in a new direction that I might not otherwise have traveled. So, sure, it may be one step forward and two steps back, but after a time with Parkinson’s, I’ve learned that what is important is making that one step count; always looking up.” Michael J. Fox
  21. “The strongest people are not those who show strength in front of us but those who win battles we know nothing about.” Anonymous
  22. “We aren’t victims, we are strong, amazing people who just happen to have a crummy disease, and we want a cure to that disease”  Kate Matheson
  23. “In the midst of winter, I found there was, within me, an invincible summer.  And that makes me happy. For it says that no matter how hard the world pushes against me, within me, there’s something stronger – something better, pushing right back.” Albert Camus
  24.  “Chris[topher] Reeve wisely parsed the difference between optimism and hope. Unlike optimism, he said, ‘Hope is the product of knowledge and the projection of where the knowledge can take us.” Michael J. Fox
  25. “We will be more successful in all our endeavors if we can let go of the habit of running all the time, and take little pauses to relax and re-center ourselves. And we’ll also have a lot more joy in living.” Thich Nhat Hanh
  26.  “With the support of my family and friends, I will meet this challenge with the same determination and unwavering intensity that I have displayed in all of my endeavors in life.” Kirk Gibson
  27. “Life is to be lived even if we are not healthy.” David Blatt
  28. “What is the difference between Illness and Wellness? Illness begins with ‘I’; Wellness begins with ‘We.'” Bob Kuhn in his address at the WPC in Montreal.(shared by Lisa Cox)

    The final 7 quotes are from this blog, “Journey With Parkinson’s” (to access each individual blog post just click on my name following each quote):

  29. “We must believe we have all the ingredients available to overcome the challenges in our lives.  We must accept that obstacles may exist; but like any speed breaker, the road of life will (hopefully) smooth out just ahead. We must understand that our lives can remain full while we deal with adversity; remember the sun usually follows the summer’s afternoon thunderstorm.” Frank C. Church
  30. “The song of the journey ahead for us is about living authentically in the presence of Parkinson’s.” Frank C. Church
  31. “The moment you become positive knowing that the obstacles of Parkinson’s are ever present unless you mount a strong countermeasure; focus positively to not become distracted by this disorder.” Frank C. Church
  32. “Each day we wear a cape on our back labeled with the letters PD (Parkinson’s Disease).  Each day we bring a positive reaction to handle our symptoms, I am convinced we begin to fade those letters; we begin to gain control of our symptoms.” Frank C. Church
  33. “Awake each morning: Each new day renews our life, our contract to keep living.  Strive to live-forward, and always remember that we’re still in the driver’s seat of our world. Live decisively even as we accept the problems from Parkinson’s.” Frank C. Church
  34. Strength is found in each of us.  For those of us with Parkinson’s, we use our personal strengths of character to bolster our hope, courage, mindfulness/contentment/gratitude, determination, and the will to survive. Stay strong. Stay hopeful. Stay educated. Stay determined. Stay persistent. Stay courageous. Stay positive. Stay wholehearted. Stay mindful. Stay happy. Stay you.”  Frank C. Church
  35. “Always remember, your life matters now with Parkinson’s as much as it did before Parkinson’s. Stay hopeful as you navigate adversity, stay you in spite of your Parkinson’s.” Frank C. Church


“speak quietly to yourself & promise there will be better days. whisper gently to yourself and provide assurance that you really are extending your best effort. console your bruised and tender spirit with reminders of many other successes. offer comfort in practical and tangible ways – as if you were encouraging your dearest friend. recognize that on certain days the greatest grace is that the day is over and you get to close your eyes. tomorrow comes more brightly…” Mary Anne Radmacher

Cover photo credit: http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/small/612141.jpg