Category Archives: Positivity

Parkinson’s Disease Research: A Commentary from the Stands and the Playing Field

“You can have a very bad end with Parkinson’s, but on the other hand, you can be like me, because I’m lucky. I’m not having a bad end.” Margo MacDonald

“My age makes me think how valuable life is. How bad is something like Parkinson’s in relation to not having life at all?” Michael J. Fox

Introduction: Last month, together with Dr. Simon Stott and his team of scientists (The Science of Parkinson’s Disease), we co-published a historical timeline of Parkinson’s disease beginning with the description of the ‘shaking palsy’ from James Parkinson in 1817. My post entitled “Milestones in Parkinson’s Disease Research and Discovery” can be read here (click this link). The Science of Parkinson’s Disease post entitled “Milestones in Parkinson’s Disease Research and Discovery” can be read here (click this link).

We spent a lot of time compiling and describing what we felt were some of the most substantial findings during the past 200 years regarding Parkinson’s disease.  I learned a lot; truly amazing what has been accomplished in our understanding of  such a complex and unique disorder.  Simon posted a follow-up note entitled “Editorial: Putting 200 years into context” (click this link). I have decided to also post a commentary from the standpoint of (i) being someone with Parkinson’s and (ii) being a research scientist.

“Every strike brings me closer to the next home run.” Babe Ruth

Baseball: I want to use the analogy of a baseball game to help organize my commentary. Baseball fans sit in the stands and have fun watching the game, thinking about the strategy behind the game, eating/drinking, and sharing the experience with family/friends/colleagues.   Most baseball players begin playing early in life and the ultimate achievement would be to reach the major leagues. And this would usually have taken many years of advancing through different levels of experience on the part of the ballplayer. How does how this analogy work for me in this blog? Stands: I am a person-with-Parkinson’s watching the progress to treat and/or cure this disorder. Playing field: I am a research scientist in a medical school (click here to view my training/credentials).

“Never allow the fear of striking out keep you from playing the game!”  Babe Ruth

Observation from the stands:
I am a spectator like everyone else with Parkinson’s. I read much of the literature available online.  Like you, I think about my disorder; I think about how it’s affecting me every day of my life. Yes, I want a cure for this disease.  Yes, I’m rather impatient too.  I understand the angst and anxiety out there with many of the people with Parkinson’s. In reality, I would not be writing this blog if I didn’t have Parkinson’s. Therefore, I truly sense your frustration that you feel in the presence of Parkinson’s, I do understand.  Given below are examples of various organizations and ads and billboards in support of finding a cure for Parkinson’s.  Some even suggest that a cure must come soon.   However, the rest of my post is going to be dedicated to trying to explain why it’s taking so long; why I am optimistic and positive a cure and better treatment options are going to happen.  And it is partly based on the fact that there really are some amazing people working to cure Parkinson’s and to advance our understanding of this disorder.

“When you come to a fork in the road take it.” Yogi Berra

Observations from the playing field (NIH, war on cancer, research lab, and advancing to a cure for Parkinson’s):

National Institutes of Health (NIH) and biomedical research in the USA: Part of what you have to understand, in the United States at least, is that a large portion of biomedical research is funded by the NIH (and other federally-dependent organizations), which receives a budget from Congress (and the taxpayers). What does it mean for someone with Parkinson’s compared to someone with cancer or diabetes? The amount of federal funds committed to the many diseases studied by NIH-funded-researchers are partly divvied up by the number of people affected. I have prepared a table from the NIH giving the amount of money over the past few years for the top four neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s Disease, respectively [taken from “Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories” (click here)]. And this is compared to cancer and coronary arterial disease and a few other major diseases. Without going into the private organizations that fund research, a large amount of money comes from the NIH. Unfortunately, from 2003-2015, the NIH lost >20% of its budget for funding research (due to budget cuts, sequestration, and inflationary losses; click here to read further).   Therefore,  it is not an overstatement to say getting  funded today by the NIH is fiercely competitive.  From 1986 to 2015, my lab group was supported by several NIH grants and fellowships  (and we also received funding from the American Heart Association and Komen for the Cure).

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“In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. But in practice, there is.” Yogi Berra

War against cancer: In 1971, Pres. Richard Nixon declared war against cancer and Congress passed the National Cancer Act.  This created a new national mandate “to support research and application of the results of research to reduce the incident, morbidity, and mortality from cancer.” Today, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA; however, we’ve come such a long way to improving this statistic from when the Cancer Act was initiated.

Scientifically, in the 1970’s, we were just learning about oncogenes and the whole field of molecular biology was really in its infancy. We had not even started sequencing the human genome, or even of any organism.  We discovered genes that could either promote or suppress cellular growth.   We began to delineate the whole system of cell signaling and communications with both normal and malignant cells. We now know there are certain risk factors that allow us to identify people that may have increased risk for certain cancers. Importantly,  we came to realize that not all cancers were alike,  and it offered the notion to design treatment strategies for each individual cancer.  For example,  we now have very high cure rates for childhood acute leukemia and Hodgkin’s lymphoma and we have significantly improved survival statistics for women with breast cancer. Many might say this was a boondoggle and that we wasted billions of dollars  funding basic biomedical research on cancer; however, basic  biomedical research is expensive and translating that into clinical applications is even more expensive.  [ For a  very nice short review on cancer research please see the following article, it may be freely accessible by now: DeVita Jr, Vincent T., and Steven A. Rosenberg. “Two hundred years of cancer research.” New England Journal of Medicine 366.23 (2012): 2207-2214.]

“One of the beautiful things about baseball is that every once in a while you come into a situation where you want to, and where you have to, reach down and prove something.” Nolan Ryan

The biomedical research laboratory environment:  A typical laboratory group setting is depicted in the drawing below. The research lab usually consists of the lead scientist who has the idea to study a research topic, getting grants funded and in recruiting a lab group to fulfill the goals of the project.  Depending on the philosophy of the project leader the lab may resemble very much like the schematic below or may be altered to have primarily technicians or senior postdoctoral fellows working in the lab  (as two alternative formats). A big part of academic research laboratories is education and training the students and postdocs to go on to advance their own careers; then you replace the people that have left and you continue your own research.  Since forming my own lab group in 1986, I have helped train over 100 scientists in the research laboratory: 17 graduate students, 12 postdoctoral fellows, 17 medical students, and 64 undergraduates. The lab has been as large as 10 people and a small as it is currently is now with two people. People come to your lab group because they like what you’re doing scientifically and this is where they want to belong for their own further training and advancement.  This description is for an academic research  laboratory; and  I should also emphasize that many people get trained in federal government-supported organizations, private Pharma and other types of research environments that may differ in their laboratory structure and organizational format.

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“Hitting is 50% above the shoulders.” Ted Williams

 In search of the cure for Parkinson’s:    First, I understand the situation you’re in with Parkinson’s because I’m living through the same situation.   But when people find out I’m a research scientist they always wonder why aren’t we doing more to find a cure, and I  hear the sighs of frustration and I see the anxiety in their faces. Second, the previous three sections are not meant to be an excuse for why there is still no cure for Parkinson’s. It is presented in the reality of what biomedical research scientists must undergo to study a topic.  Third, the experiments that take place in basic biomedical research laboratory may happen over weeks to months if successful. Taking that laboratory data to the clinic and further takes months and years to succeed if at all.   The section on cancer reminds me a lot of where we are going with Parkinson’s and trying to advance new paradigms in the treatment and curative strategies.  Professionally, I have even decided  to pursue research funding in the area of Parkinson’s disease.   Why not spend the rest of my academic career studying my own disease; in the least I can help educate others about this disorder. Furthermore, I can assure you from my reading and meeting people over the last couple of years, there are many hundreds of scientists and clinicians throughout this world studying Parkinson’s and trying to advance our understanding and derive a cure.  I see their devotion, I see their commitment to helping cure our disorder.

The science behind Parkinson’s is quite complicated. These complications suggest that Parkinson’s may be more of a syndrome rather than a disease. Instead of a one-size-fits-all like a disease would be classified; Parkinson’s as a syndrome would be a group of symptoms which consistently occur together.  What this might imply is that some treatment strategy might work remarkably well on some patients but have no effect on others. However, without a detailed understanding and advancement of what Parkinson’s really is we will never reach the stage where we can cure this disorder.

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In a recent blog from the Science of Parkinson’s disease, Simon nicely summarized all the current research in 2017 in Parkinson’s disease (click here to read this post). To briefly summarize what he said is that there are multiple big Pharma collaborations occurring to study Parkinson’s.  There are more than 20 clinical trials currently being done in various stages of completion to prevent disease progression but also to try to cure the disorder.  From a search of the literature, there are literally hundreds of research projects going on that promise to advance our understanding of this disorder. With the last point, it still will take time to happen. Finally, I am a realist but I’m also optimistic and positive that we’re making incredible movement toward much better therapies, which will eventually lead to curative options for Parkinson’s.

And a final analogy to baseball and Parkinson’s, as Tommy Lasorda said “There are three types of baseball players: those who make it happen, those who watch it happen, and those who wonder what happens.”  I really want to be one of those scientists that help make it happen (or at least to help advance our understanding of the disorder).

“You can’t expect life to play fair with your heart or your brain or your health. That’s not the nature of the game we call life. You have to recognize the nature of the game and know that you can do your best to make the right choices, but life if going to do whatever the hell it pleases to you anyway. All you can control is how you react to whatever life throws at you. You can shut down or you can soar.” Holly Nicole Hoxter

Cover photo credit: PNC Park photo: i.imgur.com/32RWncK

Sign post scienceofparkinsons.com/

7 Healthy Habits For Your Brain

   “Your brain – every brain – is a work in progress. It is ‘plastic.’ From the day we’re born to the day we die, it continuously revises and remodels, improving or slowly declining, as a function of how we use it.” Michael Merzenich

“The root of all health is in the brain. The trunk of it is in emotion. The branches and leaves are the body. The flower of health blooms when all parts work together.” Kurdish Saying

7 Basic Brain Facts [click here for more facts]: (1) The typical brain is ~2% of your total weight but it uses 20% of your total energy and oxygen intake. (2) >100,000 chemicals reactions/sec occur in your brain. (3) The latest estimate is that our brains contain ~86 billion brain cells. (4) In contrast to the popular belief that we use ~10% of our brains; brain scans show we use most of our brain most of the time. (5) There are as many as 10,000 specific types of neurons in the brain.  (6) Cholesterol is an integral part of every brain cell. Twenty-five percent of the body’s cholesterol resides within the brain. (7) Your brain generates between 12-25 watts of electricity, which is enough to power a low wattage LED light.

7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain: With or without Parkinson’s disease, taking care of your brain is all-important to your overall well-being, life-attitude, and health. These are  straightforward suggestions of healthy habits for your brain; hopefully, this list will serve as a reminder about their importance.  Here is a 1-page summary of the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain” (Click here to download file).

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[1] Exercise and neuroplasticity:
  Exercise is almost like a soothing salve for your brain.  Some benefits of exercise include helping your memory and increased flow of oxygen to brain, which energizes the brain.  Exercise is good for both your heart and your brain. Exercise can reduce inflammation in the brain and increase hormones circulating to your brain.  For a brief overview on the benefits of exercise to your brain, click here.

Neuroplasticity is the ability to re-draw, re-wire the connections in your brain. What this means is that neuroplasticity is a concerted attempt of neurons to compensate for brain injury/disease. Neuroplasticity ultimately modifies your brain’s activities in response to changes in these neuronal-environments.

There is much positive evidence in animal models of Parkinson’s regarding exercise-induced neuroplasticity.  The same benefits are now being tested in humans with Parkinson’s and the results are most encouraging. One of the numerous backlogged blog drafts that will be completed in the near-future is a “Review of Exercise and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s”.

“Exercise is really for the brain, not the body. It affects mood, vitality, alertness, and feelings of well-being.” John Ratey

“Neuroplasticity research showed that the brain changes its very structure with each different activity it performs, perfecting its circuits so it is better suited to the task at hand.” Naveen Jain

[2] Diet and brain food: Your memory is aided by ‘what’ you eat.  Harvard’s Women Health Watch makes the following suggestion to boost your memory through diet (click here to read entire article): “The Mediterranean diet includes several components that might promote brain health: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil help improve the health of blood vessels, reducing the risk for a memory-damaging stroke; Fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been linked to lower levels of beta-amyloid proteins in the blood and better vascular health; Moderate alcohol consumption raises levels of healthy high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Alcohol also lowers our cells’ resistance to insulin, allowing it to lower blood sugar more effectively. Insulin resistance has been linked to dementia.”  WebMD summarized the role of diet and brain health in “Eat Smart for a Healthier Brain” (click here to read article).

A large group of women (>13,000 participants) over the age of 70 were studied and the results showed that the women who ate the most vegetables had the greater mental agility (click here to read the article). These results suggest for a healthy brain we should eat colorful fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants; and foods rich in natural vitamin E, vitamin C, B (B6, B12) folic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, we should avoid refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. In small amounts, vitamin D3 is almost like candy for your brain.

“Hunger, prolonged, is temporary madness! The brain is at work without its required food, and the most fantastic notions fill the mind.” Jules Verne

“Everything one reads is nourishment of some sort – good food or junk food – and one assumes it all goes in and has its way with your brain cells.” Lorrie Moore

[3] Mindfulness/meditation: Greater Good (The Science of a Meaningful Life) describes mindfulness as “…maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment. Mindfulness also involves acceptance, meaning that we pay attention to our thoughts and feelings without judging them—without believing, for instance, that there’s a ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ way to think or feel in a given moment.”  I recently described mindfulness as “Mindfulness means you stay within your breath, and focus within yourself, with no remembrance of the past minute and no planning for the future moment.”  Here’s a simple mindfulness experience/moment: simply be aware of the steam leaving your morning cup of coffee/tea, clear your immediate thoughts, then sip, focus and savor this moment.

“The picture we have is that mindfulness practice increases one’s ability to recruit higher order, pre-frontal cortex regions in order to down-regulate lower-order brain activity,” a comment from Dr. Adrienne Taren, a researcher studying mindfulness at the University of Pittsburgh. She also said  “it’s the disconnection of our mind from its ‘stress center’ that seems to give rise to a range of physical as well as mental health benefits.”  (Click here to read this article).  “What Does Mindfulness Meditation Do to Your Brain?” (click here to read more)

“Mindfulness practices enhance the connection between our body, our mind and everything else that is around us.” Nhat Hanh

“Mindfulness is a pause — the space between stimulus and response: that’s where choice lies.” Tara Brach

 [4] Stress reduction: When you are under constant or chronic stress your body makes more of the steroid hormone cortisol (a glucocorticoid), which is produced by the adrenal glands above your kidneys.  Over time, chronic stress can trigger changes in brain structure and function. Excess cortisol production reduces neuronal cells, over-produces myelin protective covering to our nerves, and we make more oligodendrocytes.  How do you reduce chronic stress?  Exercise and mindfulness/meditation are both able to lower cortisol levels.  Easier said then done to making life-style changes to reduce chronic stress; however, doing it will allow the neuroplastic process to begin re-wiring your brain. For an overview of stress and trying to manage/reduce chronic stress, click here.

“Stress is an ignorant state. It believes that everything is an emergency.” Natalie Goldberg

“There is more to life than increasing its speed.” Mahatma Gandhi

[5] Work, keep active mentally:  There are 2 sides to this topic.  First, stay engaged at work and you won’t age as fast as someone disengaged.  What I’m trying to say is simply staying active mentally at work will assist your brain during the ageing process.  Keep your brain stimulated with work, thought, challenges; the effort provides your brain with significant growth.  Your reward will be an active-focused and rejuvenated mind.  Second, by contrast, we’re all working long hours balancing too many tasks, all-the-time; ultimately, we’re trying to multi-task when we really can’t multi-task very well.  In a nice article entitled “The Magic of Doing One Thing at a Time“, Tony Schwartz summarized a key problem: “It’s not just the number of hours we’re working, but also the fact that we spend too many continuous hours juggling too many things at the same time. What we’ve lost, above all, are stopping points, finish lines and boundaries.”  As you balance the 2-sides-of-the-topic, focus your energy on the first-side by performing each individual task/topic; clear your mind, keep your brain engaged, focus hard and then let your brain renew.

“To let the brain work without sufficient material is like racing an engine. It racks itself to pieces.” Arthur Conan Doyle

“A fresh mind keeps the body fresh. Take in the ideas of the day, drain off those of yesterday.” Edward Bulwer-Lytton

 [6] Positive and happy is better for your brain:  I truly believe you need to be positive in dealing with Parkinson’s; trying to focus on staying happy will benefit all-around you and bolster your brain’s health. Using positivity will allow you to creatively handle many obstacles ahead, whether in the absence or presence of Parkinson’s.  Susan Reynolds summarized in “Happy Brain, Happy Life” that being happy: “stimulates the growth of nerve connections; improves cognition by increasing mental productivity; improves your ability to analyze and think; affects your view of surroundings; increases attentiveness; and leads to more happy thoughts.”  On the notion of staying positive, she said: “…thinking positive, happy, hopeful, optimistic, joyful thoughts decreases cortisol and produces serotonin, which creates a sense of well-being. This helps your brain function at peak capacity.”


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“Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” Maya Angelou

“You have to train your brain to be positive just like you work out your body.” Shawn Achor

[7] Sleep: It’s simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Many of us battle with less than adequate daily sleep habits.  However, it’s really simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Much of our day’s success resides in the quality of sleep the night before.  The science of sleep is complex but much of it revolves around our brain.  We use sleep to renew and de-fragment our brain; and sleep helps strengthen our memory.  For more details on sleep science, please look over “What Happens in the Brain During Sleep?” (click here).  Alice G. Walton very nicely summarized several aspects of the sleep-brain interactions focusing on the following 7 headings: “Sleep helps solidify memory; Toxins, including those associated with Alzheimer’s disease, are cleared during sleep; Sleep is necessary for cognition; Creativity needs sleep; Sleep loss and depression are  intertwined; Physical health and longevity; and Kids need their sleep” [click here for “7 Ways Sleep Affects The Brain (And What Happens If It Doesn’t Get Enough)”].  Finally, the Rand Corp. just released a comprehensive study on sleep and the economic burden being caused by the lack of sleep (click here to read the 100-page report).

Sleep is the golden chain that ties health and our bodies together.Thomas Dekker

A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor’s book.   Irish Proverb

A Personal Reflection on the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain”:  My fall semester is physically, mentally, and emotionally draining; and I cherish doing all of these tasks, I really do.  The writing of this blog is a deliberate attempt to remind me what I need to be doing, to re-initiate tomorrow in my daily life.  I could explain each point in detail in what poor-brain-health-habits I’ve developed this semester (but I won’t).  However, I am printing out the 1-page handout of 7-healthy-brain-habits to keep it with me as I spend the rest of December re-establishing effective habits for my brain; and doing a better job of balancing work with life-love-fun.

“Your body, which is bonding millions of molecules every second, depends on transformation. Breathing and digestion harness transformation. Food and air aren’t just shuffled about but, rather, undergo the exact chemical bonding needed to keep you alive. The sugar extracted from an orange travels to the brain and fuels a thought. The emergent property in this case is the newness of the thought; no molecules in the history of the universe ever combined to produce that exact thought.” Deepak Chopra

Cover image: https://img1.etsystatic.com/000/0/6392236/il_fullxfull.267319437.jpg

Mindfulness list: http://www.mindful.org/7-things-mindful-people-do-differently-and-how-to-get-started/

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Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s

“Life is not only merriment, it is desire and determination.” Kahlil Gibran

“Nothing will work unless you do.” Maya Angelou

Dedication: I recently participated in a Parkinson Wellness Recovery (PWR!) Instructor Workshop in Greenville, SC (July 30-31, 2016); now I am certified in PWR!Moves.  This post is dedicated to the workshop instructor Jennifer Bazan-Wigle; and to my classmates, all of the personal trainers interested in working with Parkinson’s disease patients.  Jennifer was simply a great instructor, with a real understanding of Parkinson’s and a true ability to ‘teach’.  The personal trainers who participated were very dedicated in their effort to master PWR!Moves and their willingness to instruct me during the weekend workshop made for a memorable experience.  And not to forget Steve Miller, a PWR!Moves instructor, who also helped teach; you were the inspiration that led me to apply for this workshop. To everyone certified in PWR!Moves and to those involved in my PWR!Moves workshop, thank you, thank you so very much.

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“There are no shortcuts to any place worth going.” Beverly Sills

Introduction: Coach Lou Holtz said “Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.”  This got me thinking about ability, motivation and attitude but especially how vital both motivation and attitude are for living successfully with Parkinson’s.

Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s:
I’m a healthy person that happens to have Parkinson’s; this is what I believe:
I believe daily exercise enhances my life in the presence of Parkinson’s.
I believe people-with-Parkinson’s can become healthier with exercise.
I believe sustained exercise can promote neuroplasticity to re-wire my neural network.
I believe I have the ability to do the repetitions to re-train my brain.
I believe staying positive will help control the course of my Parkinson’s.
I believe having courage will provide mettle in the battle against my disorder.
I believe being persistent allows me to restrain my Parkinson’s.
I believe motivation begins from within, and there can be no backing down to this disease.
I believe if I don’t give up I can slow the progression of my disorder.
I believe if you pity me it feeds the hunger of my Parkinson’s.
I believe if you join my team, you can help me stall this slowly evolving disorder.
I believe attitude is the fuel to sustain the effort to combat Parkinson’s.
I believe in science that new therapies/strategies against Parkinson’s are on the horizon.
I believe exercise with ability, motivation and attitude will work to my advantage each day.
I believe that each new day renews my chance of slowing the beast named Parkinson’s.
My daily mantra is to never give up; I refuse to surrender to Parkinson’s.

“Keep your thoughts positive because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive because your words become your behavior. Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes your habits. Keep your habits positive because your habits become your values. Keep your values positive because your values become your destiny.” Mahatma Gandhi

Cover photo credit: https://c7.staticflickr.com/9/8615/16157237102_f15e505c19_b.jpg

 

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The Evolving Portrait of Parkinson’s

“Aging is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength.” Betty Friedane

 “If we own the story then we can write the ending.” Brené Brown

Précis:  To showcase the amazing art/photography/videography of Anders M. Leines who lives in Norway, which gives me the opportunity to voice an opinion about the emerging picture/image of Parkinson’s today.

World Parkinson Congress (WPC) Promo Video: Please watch this video, it’s powerful; “This is Parkinson’s” a WPC Promo from Anders M. Leines (either view it below or click here).  Anders is a videographer and cameraman who works in Oslo, Norway; he’s been diagnosed with young onset Parkinson’s. One of his goals is to change the view about how Parkinson’s is perceived by the world.  One look at his video reinforces this notion.  A very nice article about Mr. Leines was recently posted in “Parkinson’s Life” (click here to read this story).  Anders also shares his story with his own blog “This is Parkinson`s” – The Exhibition.  The pictures, the script, and the music accompanying the WPC 2016 Promo by Mr. Leines says more in 1 min 42 sec about Parkinson’s than someone could likely summarize by writing a blog post, but nonetheless I’m going to try.

A hero is an ordinary individual who finds the strength to persevere and endure in spite of overwhelming obstacles.” Christopher Reeve

The Historical Perception of Parkinson’s: Sir Richard Gowers, in 1886, used this drawing (below left panel) to depict a person with Parkinson’s. When you perform a Google search for a ‘picture of Parkinson’s disease’, these sorts of images are still very prevalent. Yes, the average age of someone with Parkinson’s is 60 years of age and older. And yes, Sir Gowers does accurately show the Cardinal signs of Parkinson’s: tremor, rigidity from muscle stiffness, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), postural instability, and masking (reduced facial expression).  Furthermore, Dr. Charcot’s  drawings, from 1888, also depict a typical Parkinson’s patient compared to an atypical patient with Parkinson’s (bottom right panel).  While these drawings are accurate, these images portray to many who see them that all people-with-Parkinson’s must look and act like this. 

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“In all human affairs there are efforts, and there are results, and the strength of the effort is the measure of the result.” James Allen

The Emerging Perception of Parkinson’s: The reality today is that available treatment strategy and approach to life for someone with Parkinson’s are very different than what was possible for the people portrayed by Sir Gowers and Dr. Charcot. Today, we have well-trained neurologists that are specialists in movement disorders. We have a growing appreciation and understanding of the pathology and biology of Parkinson’s disease.  We have learned about vital lifestyle changes needed to thrive in the presence of this disorder. We have a growing list of therapies [both traditional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)] to treat Parkinson’s; we even have deep brain surgery (this surgical technique itself is undergoing new advances and is further evolving in its attempt to control/modify symptoms). We have an increased awareness of the importance of exercise to try to slow progression of this disorder. There is clearly a subset of people with Parkinson’s that present at an earlier age than 60 years old (and this is what Mr. Leines and his exhibition is highlighting).   No doubt, we are living longer and we are likely healthier than someone from the 1880’s; however, that also implies we’re living more years with our Parkinson’s.

This is not saying that Parkinson’s today is either a benign or a tame disease; in fact, it’s an insidious disorder.  Having Parkinson’s is like trying to get rid of cockroaches in your house.  You’ve done all you can to eliminate the roaches from your home, and you don’t see them for weeks; subsequently one day, they’re back. Likewise, Parkinson’s creeps around in the background of your daily life by stealthily altering physical/movement functions, by slowly uncoupling your crucial autonomic nervous system, and surreptitiously in ~50% of people with the disorder, they can develop psychotic tendencies.  The image of Parkinson’s today is clearly evolving due to improved treatment, better understanding of the disorder itself, and improved strategies for living with it; however, under any guise it is still a disagreeable disorder.

“With everything that has happened to you, you can either feel sorry for yourself or treat what has happened as a gift. Everything is either an opportunity to grow or an obstacle to keep you from growing. You get to choose.” Wayne Dyer

A Change is Happening in Our Perspective of Parkinson’s Today:  It is my belief that the perception of Parkinson’s today has changed and is becoming much different than the historical views as described above. I truly believe that the effort most people are using to handle their disorder puts them in a healthier and better lifestyle to manage their symptoms. An emerging predominate picture of Parkinson’s today is a person striving to live strongly. They’ve embraced the appropriate lifestyle, and they are trying their hardest to not become as depicted by the images from the 1800’s. When you do a Google search for ‘images of Parkinson’s disease 2016’, you will likely find more positive and dynamic pictures of people similar to those portrayed by Mr. Leines.

“Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal. My strength lies solely in my tenacity.” Louis Pasteur

A Personal Perspective of Parkinson’s Today: With the “This is Parkinson’s” video from Anders M. Leines as an inspiration, I’ve included two sets of pictures of my life with Parkinson’s (photos are below). If my disorder fully progresses, and it is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, in advanced age (I’m currently 62 years old) I may possibly appear like the drawings above from Sir Gowers and Dr. Charcot. However, as a research scientist, I truly believe in the words of Dr. Claude Levi-Strauss who said “The scientist is not a person who gives the right answers, he is one who asks the right questions.”  I am trying to improve my own knowledge about Parkinson’s; after all, there are still so many questions I want to ask, there are so many new scientific advances that I need to better understand, and there are some emerging treatment strategies that I’d be willing to consider in the future. In other words, Parkinson’s is a reluctant and unwelcome visitor in my body and I’m doing as much as I can to manage the disorder.

With substantial effort, I’m going to do all I can to resist progression; I’m going to stay hopeful, be positive, and remain persistent for many years to come. Importantly, I will take time to stretch every few hours and really make an effort to exercise every day. I will try harder to get an adequate amount of sleep every night.  I am also trying to be mindful and live within the moment by not fretting about what the future could bring.

Thus, this is what I consider to be true of myself (many other people with Parkinson’s would also fit this description): I’m a healthy person that just happens to have Parkinson’s. As I’ve said before, we both have much left to accomplish. We are both still here. Stay focused and stay hopeful.

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“We live in a time when the words impossible and unsolvable are no longer part of the scientific community’s vocabulary. Each day we move closer to trials that will not just minimize the symptoms of disease and injury but eliminate them.” Christopher Reeve

Cover photo credit: http://epod.usra.edu/.a/6a0105371bb32c970b015438c5312a970c-pi

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9 Life Lessons from 2016 Commencement Speeches

“There is no script. Live your life. Soak it all in.” Dick Costolo, University of Michigan in 2013

“I encourage you to live with life. Be courageous, adventurous. Give us a tomorrow, more than we deserve.” Maya Angelou, University of California Riverside in 1977

Introduction: Each spring  semester, University systems have  graduation ceremonies along with commencement speakers to give advice about life ahead for our graduating students. We can all use such life lessons as a guidepost for what to do or what to expect with our lives. For some of you, these ‘pearls of wisdom’ may serve as as a reminder to what you’ve already (possibly/probably) experienced. There are three parts to this post: Part 1 gives some notable advice from various 2016 Commencement speeches; Part 2 is using this advice living in the presence of Parkinson’s; and Part 3 is a reflection on two graduation ceremonies I attended.

Part 1: 9 Life Lessons from 2016 Commencement Speeches Presented as a Chart (please click here to view/download a full-size version: 16.06.01.Graduation Life Lessons).
16.06.01.Graduation Life Lessons

Part 2: Using the 9 Life Lessons Living with Parkinson’s.

  1. Resilience and Persistence. “When the challenges come, I hope you remember that anchored deep within you is the ability to learn and grow. You are not born with a fixed amount of resilience. Like a muscle, you can build it up, draw on it when you need it. In that process you will figure out who you really are — and you just might become the very best version of yourself.Sheryl Sandberg (COO Facebook), University of California at Berkeley
    A thriving daily life with Parkinson’s requires both resilience and persistence to resist its constant negative forces. Life (at times) can be a challenge, but challenges can be met with steadfastness/determination from a resilient and persistent attitude.

  2. Mindfulness. “In those moments when you’re doing something that could be life-changing, whether it’s in space, or in your career, you need to constantly remind yourselves that there is nothing more important than what you’re doing right now.Scott Kelly  (retired NASA astronaut), University of Houston
    Losing sleep over what happened with your disorder yesterday is no doubt difficult; but it’s better to dwell in the present moment and neither fret over yesterday nor dread about what may come tomorrow. You control the current moment, please practice mindfulness.
  3. Embrace The Unexpected. Don’t be so focused in your plans that you are unwilling to consider the unexpected.Senator Elizabeth Warren, Bridgewater State University
    Consider your disorder, you must be able to embrace this unexpected turn in your life and manage the best you can. Personalize your disorder and understand its nuances on you; then you will be able to successfully navigate life in its daily presence.

  4. Care Is Investing In Others. Care is as important as career. … Career is investing in yourself. Learning, growing, and building on the education you received here. Care is investing in others. It is learning like a gardener, or a teacher, or a coach, what to do and what not to do to enable others to grow and flourish.” Anne Marie Slaughter (President and CEO of New America), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Yes, a career is important; however, caring and investing in others will be equally valuable over the course of your life. The caring for others allows you to approach life with open arms and not be afraid to ask for help when the time is needed.
  5. Mistakes Will Happen. “Every stumble is not a fall, and every fall does not mean failure. Know the next right move when the mistake happens. Because being human means you will make mistakes. And you will make mistakes, because failure is God’s way of moving you in another direction.” Oprah Winfrey (American media proprietor and philanthropist), Johnson C. State University
    Clearly, we’ve all made mistakes and likely even failed at something before. Within the framework of having Parkinson’s, just keep trying to do the things you were doing before the diagnosis. You may falter more frequently now with the disorder but it really is the effort that counts.

  6. Kindness. “We like to feel we are civilized. How do you measure that? The usual versions look at science, technology, wealth, education, happiness. Every measure fails, except one. There is one measure of civilization and it comes down to how people treat each other. Kindness is the basic ingredient.” William Foege (American epidemiologist who devised the global strategy that led to the eradication of smallpox), Emory University
    This reminds me of the Golden rule, which says, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”  The cornerstone of kindness is simple but true; be kind and honorable to others, the rest will take care of itself.

  7. Turn No Into Yes. When life tells you no, find a way to keep things in perspective. That doesn’t make the painful moments any less painful… You don’t have to live forever in that no. Because if you know what you’re capable of, if you’re always prepared, and you keep things in perspective, then life has a way of turning a no into yes.” Russell Wilson  (NFL starting quarterback), University of Wisconsin
    Within you lies the same person you were before Parkinson’s; thus, you should remember what you are clearly capable of doing. Go ahead and see for yourself,  yes  is still occurring with the disorder and likely outweighs the no in terms of frequency.

  8. Life-long Learner. “The secret to success is not rocket science. It just requires true dedication and a willingness to go the extra mile…. Let’s put it this way: I know of no Nobel Prize winner who has stopped studying.” Michael Bloomberg (former Mayor of New York City), University of Michigan
    Your lessons of life continue to accumulate. Get to know your disorder and stay educated about it. The more up-to-date you become about Parkinson’s the better you will be prepared in terms of living years in the future.

  9. Live Every Day. “Live with the understanding of how precious every single day would be. How precious every day actually is” Sheryl Sandberg (COO Facebook), University of California at Berkeley
    Your life-contract begins when you wake up each morning, and it’s reassessed fully as you fall asleep each evening. Please stay hopeful, positive, courageous and cherish each day even with your disorder, appreciate each day as it occurs.

Part 3: Two UNC-CH Graduation Ceremonies, May 2016.  We have our graduation ceremonies on Mother’s Day weekend. Besides the graduates themselves, equally involved are immediate/extended families, loved ones and friends.  Receiving a degree of any distinction (e.g., BA/BS, MA/MS, MD, or PhD) is an achievement. Everyone deserves congratulations.  For me, participating in the School of Medicine ceremony [where I get to sit on the stage and wear my regalia  (please note the medical school pictures below are from last year because I forgot my cell phone this year) and watching the Department of Biology ceremony are very proud and joyful times seeing everyone graduate (and moving on to the next life-phase).

My Graduation Advice: On the last day of my undergraduate Biology class, I give advice to the graduating seniors (and it’s based on these four points):

  1. Dreams and hard work will make a difference, over time.
  2. Think about now and in the future, what makes you happy?
  3. Listen to others, seek their advice, keep listening, keep thinking.
  4. Family and real friends will always be there for you, always.

Graduation weekend signifies both an ending and a beginning. It is a completion of a cycle for many students graduating; and it states that soon we begin again with a brand-new set of students. Ultimately, to me graduation signifies a feeling of hope, determination, and renewal.  These graduation ceremonies bolster my resistance against my Parkinson’s.  I am already looking forward to next year’s events.

“There is nothing more beautiful than finding your course as you believe you bob aimlessly in the current. And wouldn’t you know that your path was there all along, waiting for you to knock, waiting for you to become. This path does not belong to your parents, your teachers, your leaders, or your lovers. Your path is your character defining itself more and more every day.” Jodie Foster, University of Pennsylvania in 2006

References:
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2016-05-27/the-best-commencement-speech-of-2016
http://www.people.com/article/commencement-addresses-2016
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/column-the-5-best-pieces-of-advice-from-2016-commencement-speeches/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2016/05/27/the-best-commencement-speeches-you-may-have-missed/
http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/2016/05/20/Best-Advice-Commencement-Speeches-2016
http://www.inc.com/laura-garnett/the-most-inspirational-commencement-speeches-of-2016.html
https://www.entrepreneur.com/slideshow/275897#1
http://onpoint.wbur.org/2016/05/16/best-of-2016-commencement-speeches
https://www.themuse.com/advice/35-inspirational-graduation-quotes-everyone-should-hear

Cover photo credit: https://s3.amazonaws.com/media.dth/17887_0512_graduation2_zhango.jpg

Chapter 7: A Parkinson’s Reading Companion on Persistence

“It is better to take many small steps in the right direction than to make a great leap forward only to stumble backward.” Louis Sachar

“We are human. We are not perfect. We are alive. We try things. We make mistakes. We stumble. We fall. We get hurt. We rise again. We try again. We keep learning. We keep growing. And we are thankful for this priceless opportunity called life.” Ritu Ghatourey

Introduction: The 62 students in my undergraduate course, “Biology of Blood Diseases”, submitted quotes on five of the following: hope, courage, journey, persistence, positivity, strength, adversity, mindfulness, and life (for further details click here). This blog post is Chapter 7 including all of their quotes about ‘persistence’ [click here to read Chapter 1 (hope); click here to read Chapter 2 (life); click here to read Chapter 3 (strength); click here to read Chapter 4 (adversity); click here to read Chapter 5 (positivity); click here to read Chapter 6 (courage)].

Persistence and Parkinson’s: Persistence is continuing to try, an effect that continues even after the cause has been removed or something that sticks around for a long time (http://www.yourdictionary.com/persistence). To me another way of saying this is that persistence is steadfastness.  I spend a lot of time staying hopeful and being positive in dealing with this disorder. Yet perhaps the best trait to have is to remain persistent. When you have an incurable progressive neurodegenerative disorder, your effort needs to be constant and unwavering. Your persistence in dealing with this minute-by-minute really will make a difference. May these quotes about persistence reinforce your will and effort to deal daily with this unrepentant disorder named Parkinson’s.

Persistence: I am pleased to present Chapter 7 about persistence with my co-authors: Angle, Hannah; Arthur, Kallie; Artov, Michael; Bagley, Kendall; Batista, Kayla; Blaylock, Allison; Byrd, Emory; Cabell, Grant; Catalano, Michael; Clark, Kendall; Cossaart, Kristen; Culpepper, Houston; Das, Snigdha; Davis, Eric; Defazio, Stephanie; Doudnikoff, Alex; Dua, Shawn; Evans, Jessica; Evick, Andrew; Farooque, Tazeen; Ford, Kelsey; German, Zachary; Gouveia, Katie; Hall, Nikita; Isler, Victoria; Kirkley, Joel; Koutleva, Elitza; Laudun, Katie; Le, Kevin; Little, Sarah; Mackey, Josselyn; Macon, Briana; Maddox, Kaity; Marquino, Grace; Mattox, Daniel; Mcknight, Kyle; Mcmanus, Brenna; Mcshane, Sarah; Monkiewicz, Caroline; Nguyen, Michelle; Nguyen, Teresa; Olinger, Emily; Patel, Darshan; Patel, Dilesh; Patel, Jenny; Perez, Abby; Peters, Daniel; Quirin, Julia; Rawlins, Shelby; Raynor, Nathan; Renn, Matt; Scott, Alicia; Sherry, Alex; Shin, Christine; Stanton, Kate; Story, Charlotte; Swango, Summer; Szyperski, Caroline; Windley, Taylor; Wooley, Caleb; Xu, Alice; Yang, Michelle.

“The brick walls are there for a reason. The brick walls are not there to keep us out. The brick walls are there to give us a chance to show how badly we want something. ” Randy Pausch, The Last Lecture 

“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.” George Bernard Shaw’s Man and Superman

“Pain is temporary. It may last a minute, or an hour, or a day, or a year, but eventually it will subside and something else will take its place. If I quit, however, it lasts for a lifetime.” From Lance Armstrong on his fight against cancer

”It always seems impossible until it’s done. ” Nelson Mandela

”A smooth sea never made a skillful sailor. ”  Franklin D. Roosevelt

“Success is never final. Failure is never fatal. It’s courage that counts.”  John Wooden

“Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.” Thomas Edison

 “Nothing in this world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not: nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not: the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.” Calvin Coolidge

“A failure is not always a mistake. It may simply be the best one can do under the circumstances. The real mistake is to stop trying.” B. F. Skinner

“Failure is only postponed success as long as courage ‘coaches’ ambition. The habit of persistence is the habit of victory.” Herbert Kaufman

” The master has failed more times than the beginner has even tried.” Stephen McCranie

“Obstacles don’t have to stop you. If you run into a wall, don’t turn around and give up. Figure out how to climb it, go through it, or work around it.” Michael Jordan

“The best way out is always through.” Robert Frost

“Success is stumbling from failure to failure with no loss of enthusiasm.” Winston Churchill

“Better is possible. It does not take genius. It takes diligence. It takes moral clarity. It takes ingenuity. And above all, it takes a willingness to try.” Atul Gawande Better: A Surgeon’s Notes on Performance

“Promise me you will not spend so much time treading water and trying to keep your head above the waves that you forget, truly forget, how much you have always loved to swim.” Tyler Knott Gregson

“I’ve missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I’ve lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I’ve been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.” Michael Jordan

“Patience and perseverance have a magical effect before which difficulties disappear and obstacles vanish.” John Quincy Adams

“At first they’ll ask you why you’re doing it. Later they’ll ask you how you did it.” Anonymous

“A little more persistence, a little more effort, and what seemed hopeless failure may turn to glorious success.” Elbert Hubbard

“The phoenix must burn to emerge.”  Janet Fitch

“The quality of a persons life is in direct proportion to their commitment to excellence regardless of their chosen field of endeavor”  Vince Lombardi

“It gets easier, everyday gets a little easier. But you got to do it everyday, that’s the hard part, but it does get easier” BoJack Horseman (Season 2)

“Patience, persistence, and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.”  Napoleon Hill

“You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated. In fact, it may be necessary to encounter the defeats, so you can know who you are, what you can rise from, how you can still come out of it.” Maya Angelou

“Perfer et obdura, dolor hic tibi proderit olim.” (Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be useful to you.) Ovid (I saw this on The Walking Dead)

“The real glory is being knocked to your knees and then coming back. That’s real glory. That’s the essence of it.” Vince Lombardi

“The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential… these are the keys that will unlock the door to personal excellence.” Confucius

“Better is possible. It does not take genius. It takes diligence. It takes moral clarity. It takes ingenuity. And above all, it takes a willingness to try.” Atul Gawande

“Every man at some point in his life is going to lose a battle. He’s going to fight and he is going to lose. But what makes him a man is, at the midst of that battle, he does not lose himself” Friday Night Lights

“Nothing in this world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not: nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not: unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not: the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.” Calvin Coolidge

“The best view comes after the hardest climb.” Unknown

Agent Smith: “Why, Mr. Anderson? Why, why? Why do you do it? Why, why get up? Why keep fighting? Do you believe you’re fighting… for something? For more than your survival? Can you tell me what it is? Do you even know? Is it freedom? Or truth? Perhaps peace? Could it be for love? Illusions, Mr. Anderson. Vagaries of perception. Temporary constructs of a feeble human intellect trying desperately to justify an existence that is without meaning or purpose. And all of them as artificial as the Matrix itself, although… only a human mind could invent something as insipid as love. You must be able to see it, Mr. Anderson. You must know it by now. You can’t win. It’s pointless to keep fighting. Why, Mr. Anderson? Why? Why do you persist?”

Neo: “Because I choose to.”
From the movie Matrix Revolutions

“When you find yourself feeling down, just think about how far you’ve come, all the obstacles you’ve managed to get over. You didn’t make it this far to quit now.” (from a dear friend, John Lian)

“If you can’t fly then run, if you can’t run then walk, if you can’t walk then crawl, but whatever you do you have to keep moving forward.” Martin Luther King Jr.

It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer.” Albert Einstein

“The most essential factor is persistence- the determination never to allow your energy or enthusiasm to be dampened by the discouragement that must inevitably come.” James Whitcomb Riley

“If plan A doesn’t work, the alphabet has 25 more letters – 204 if you’re in Japan.”  Claire Cook

“A river cuts through rock, not because of its power, but because of its persistence.” Jim Watkins

 “That which we persist in doing becomes easier to do, not that the nature of the thing has changed but that our power to do has increased.” Ralph Waldo Emerson

“It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.”  Confucius

This one is one of my favorites. I accidentally messed up a Michael Jordan quote in attempts to rally my softball team to fight back and win a crucial game, but I think this one is really cool…

So after Michael Jordan and the Bulls had gone 7 games with the Pacers to head to the NBA finals to face a well rested Utah Jazz. After they just won the game MJ was interviewed. The reporter basically said something to the effect of people are saying that you are all fatigued. MJ’s reply was great. He said “Our hearts are not fatigued. That’s the most important thing.”

My take on the quote was more like this… Our bodies are tired, but our hearts are not…so I was kind of close, and it worked for the Bulls to persist and win the finals, and it did the same for my team. I think it’s a pretty awesome quote.

Cover photo credit: https://marisageraghty.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/race-point-beach-entrance-path.jpg

Chapter 5: A Parkinson’s Reading Companion on Positivity

”Happiness can be found even in the darkest of times, if one only remembers to turn on the light.” Albus Dumbledore from Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

“You can not have a positive life and a negative mind.” Joyce Meyer

Introduction: In 2015, I  posted a blog entitled “Words Worth Living” (to read it click here). The theme of the post revolved around quotes of inspiration. One of the exercises in my undergraduate course, “Biology of Blood Diseases”, is something called “Thought-filled Responses”  (the class also expressed their thoughts about cancer and HIV/AIDS). For this thought, the 62 students were asked to submit one quote on five (or more) of the following: hope, courage, journey, persistence, positivity, strength, adversity, mindfulness, and life. What to do with >300 quotes?  My original idea was to re-visit the above blog and post several quotes on the meaning of each word as chosen by the class. However, a great suggestion from a student was to  somehow include all of their quotes. If you have been reading along, this is Chapter 5 (of 9) of “A Parkinson’s Reading Companion”. This current post is Chapter 5 including all of their quotes about ‘positivity’ [click here to read Chapter 1 (hope); click here to read Chapter 2 (life); click here to read Chapter 3 (strength); click here to read Chapter 4 (adversity)].

Positivity and Parkinson’s: Your life is altered when given the news that you have a progressive neurodegenerative disorder like Parkinson’s. An important and constant theme of this blog  is remaining positive throughout the ups and down of this disorder.  There will be moments when you’re having a difficult time that your mindset turns negative; however,  I believe that’s when you need to be most positive in dealing with Parkinson’s. Our lives are  different now than they were before Parkinson’s and using positivity will allow us to creatively handle many obstacles ahead. May these quotes on positivity reinforce your attitude to stay positive against this unremorseful disorder.

Positivity

Positivity:  I am pleased to present Chapter 5 about positivity with my co-authors: Angle, Hannah; Arthur, Kallie; Artov, Michael; Bagley, Kendall; Batista, Kayla; Blaylock, Allison; Byrd, Emory; Cabell, Grant; Catalano, Michael; Clark, Kendall; Cossaart, Kristen; Culpepper, Houston; Das, Snigdha; Davis, Eric; Defazio, Stephanie; Doudnikoff, Alex; Dua, Shawn; Evans, Jessica; Evick, Andrew; Farooque, Tazeen; Ford, Kelsey; German, Zachary; Gouveia, Katie; Hall, Nikita; Isler, Victoria; Kirkley, Joel; Koutleva, Elitza; Laudun, Katie; Le, Kevin; Little, Sarah; Mackey, Josselyn; Macon, Briana; Maddox, Kaity; Marquino, Grace; Mattox, Daniel; Mcknight, Kyle; Mcmanus, Brenna; Mcshane, Sarah; Monkiewicz, Caroline; Nguyen, Michelle; Nguyen, Teresa; Olinger, Emily; Patel, Darshan; Patel, Dilesh; Patel, Jenny; Perez, Abby; Peters, Daniel; Quirin, Julia; Rawlins, Shelby; Raynor, Nathan; Renn, Matt; Scott, Alicia; Sherry, Alex; Shin, Christine; Stanton, Kate; Story, Charlotte; Swango, Summer; Szyperski, Caroline; Windley, Taylor; Wooley, Caleb; Xu, Alice; Yang, Michelle.

“You’re braver than you believe, and stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think.” -Winnie the Pooh

“And I know I can do this because I went to London on my own, and because I solved the mystery …and I was brave and I wrote a book and that means I can do anything” -Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

“Yesterday is not ours to recover, but tomorrow is ours to win or lose.” Lyndon B. Johnson

“Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see a shadow.” Helen Keller

“Talking about our problems is our greatest addiction. Break the habit. Talk about your joys” Rita Schiano

“If you have good thoughts they will shine out of your face like sunbeams and you will always look lovely.” Roald Dahl

“The important thing is not how long you live. It’s what you accomplish with you life. While I live, I want to shine. I want to prove that I exist. If I could do something really important…that would definitely carry on into the future…And so, if I were to disappear…I think all that I have accomplished will go on. That is…That would mean…that it’s living, right?” Grovyle, Pokemon Mystery Dungeon Explorers of Sky

Success isn’t about what you accomplish in your life, it’s about what you inspire others to do.”

“Out of clutter, find simplicity. From discord, find harmony. In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” Albert Einstein

“Perhaps this is the moment for which you have been created.” Esther 4:14

“Don’t dig up in doubt what you planted in faith.” Elisabeth Elliot

“This old world we’re livin’ in is might hard to beat. We get a thorn with every rose but ain’t the roses sweet.” Stanton

“Find a place inside where there’s joy, and the joy will burn out the pain.” Joseph Campbell

“Positive anything is better than negative nothing.” Elbert Hubbard

“If you’re not having fun, you’re doing something wrong.” Groucho Marx

“The art of living does not consist in preserving and clinging to a particular mode of happiness, but in allowing happiness to change its form without being disappointed by the change; happiness, like a child, must be allowed to grow up.” Charles L. Morgan

“I think if you just look at life in a positive way, positive things will happen” Jake Owen

“So far from forgetting this blessed place, I think my picture of it grows clearer every year: It was as close to magic as I’ve ever been.” Thomas Wolfe, UNC alum

“Every day may not be good, but there is something good in every day.” Alice Morse Earle

“In order to carry a positive action we must develop here a positive vision.” Dalai Lama

“It matters not what someone is born, but what they grow to be.” from the Harry Potter books

“Today you are you! That is truer than true! There is no one alive who is you-er than you!” Dr. Seuss 

“The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their own dreams.” Eleanor Roosevelt

“Success is stumbling from failure to failure with no loss of enthusiasm.” Winston Churchhill

“Be who you are and say what you feel because those who mind don’t matter and those who matter don’t mind” Dr. Seuss 

“Always turn a negative situation into a positive situation.” Michael Jordan

“I believe in the person I want to become.” Lana Del Rey

“Whatever comes today, look it in the eye, take a deep breath, and say to yourself “I got this”. Don’t let anything get the better of you until you’ve given it the best of you.” (from a dear friend, Randy Mullis)

“I am and always will be the optimist, the hoper of far-flung hopes and the dreamer of improbable dreams.” The Doctor (11th Doctor) from “Doctor Who”

“So I got that goin’ for me, which is nice.” Carl Spackler, Caddyshack (1980)

“Once you replace negative thoughts with positive ones, you’ll start having positive results.” Willie Nelson

“If you want to be happy, be.” Leo Tolstoy

“Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy. “Anne Frank

“The ship of my life may or may not be sailing on calm and amiable seas. The challenging days of my existence may or may not be bright and promising. Stormy or sunny days, glorious or lonely nights, I maintain an attitude of gratitude. If I insist on being pessimistic, there is always tomorrow. Today I am blessed.” Maya Angelou

Cover photo credit: http://www.inopictures.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Beach-At-Sunset-Pics.jpg

Positive-Negative Sign credit: http://www.leadershipwithsass.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/iStock_000029458050Small-Resize.jpg and http://previews.123rf.com/images/lambros/lambros1105/lambros110500137/9495584-positive-the-dictionary-project-macro-shots-shallow-D-O-F–Stock-Photo.jpg