Basal Ganglia, Nigrostriatal Pathway and Parkinson’s

"Hope arouses, as nothing else can arouse, a passion for the possible." William Sloane Coffin "Walk on, walk on with hope in your heart, and you'll never walk alone, you'll never walk alone." Oscar Hammerstein II Introduction: I have been trying to learn more about brain physiology and the inner workings as it relates to …

Cytokines Linked to Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s

"Do the difficult things while they are easy and do the great things while they are small. A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step." Lao Tzu "When I let go of what I am, I become what I might be." Lao Tzu Introduction: There are many ways that Parkinson’s begins. …

Manganese-induced Parkinsonism Compared to Parkinson’s Disease

"Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Carl Sagan "Imagination is more important than knowledge." Albert Einstein What is Manganese? Manganese is abbreviated by the symbol Mn and it is atomic number 25 (see Periodic Table of the Elements).  Manganese is considered a transition metal, which is …

Neurological Mayhem by Dual Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Agents in Aged Parkinson’s Mice

"No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave." Calvin Coolidge "The most reliable way to predict the future is to create it." Abraham Lincoln Introduction: Recently, Jeff Keegan asked me if I had seen the paper by Gil-Martínez et al., an established Parkinson's research group …

Brief Report: Benefit of Probiotic Supplements in Parkinson’s

“Taking probiotics is a habit that can really benefit the digestive system, which is intricately connected to our overall health.”  Dr. Michael F. Roizen “Compelling new studies are showing how probiotics can help keep healthy people healthy. One study showed a decreased incidence of common infectious diseases among kids in day care.”  Dr. Mary Ellen …

Journey with Parkinson’s: Brief Reports on Current Research/Issues

"There is a single light of science, and to brighten it anywhere is to brighten it everywhere." Isaac Asimov “Live neither in the past nor in the future, but let each day’s work absorb your entire energies, and satisfy your widest ambition.”  Sir William Osler Introduction: For the following reasons, I would like to introduce and …

Dopamine Agonists and Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson’s

"Whenever you are immersed in compulsive thinking, you are avoiding what is. You don't want to be where you are. Here, Now." Eckhart Tolle "Somewhere between obsession and compulsion is impulse." Alexander Pushkin Introduction: In the latest issue of Neurology (June, 2018), Dr. Corvol and collaborators in Paris, France, present the results of a long-term …