Tag Archives: Exercise

Parkinson’s Awareness Month: The Science Behind How Exercise Slows Disease Progression

“Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do.” John Wooden

“To enjoy the glow of good health, you must exercise.” Gene Tunney

Précis: For Parkinson’s Awareness Month, let’s begin with an important reminder/statement that “Exercise is medicine for Parkinson’s disease.”  Coming soon in a future blog post I will review the benefits of vigorous exercise in human Parkinson’s.  In today’s blog post, using an established mouse model of Parkinson’s disease and exercise, the recent paper from Wenbo Zhou and collaborators in Aurora, CO will be described. 

The full citation to this open-access paper is as follows: Wenbo Zhou, Jessica Cummiskey Barkow, Curt R. Freed. Running wheel exercise reduces α-synuclein aggregation and improves motor and cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. PLOS ONE, 2017; 12 (12): e0190160 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190160

Screenshot 2018-04-07 10.10.51

“Health is the thing that makes you feel that now is the best time of the year.”Franklin P. Adams

The Neuroprotective Role of Exercise in Parkinson’s, A Quick Look Back: In my own academic career (during the past 30-something years) studying deep-vein thrombosis (hematology) and breast cancer cell migration/invasion (oncology) we used many different types of experimental techniques, specifically: developing protocols to purify blood proteins; three-dimensional molecular modeling; site-directed mutagenesis and expression of recombinant proteins; blood plasma-based model systems; cell-based model systems of cancer cell migration, invasion, and cell signaling; immunohistochemical (pathology) evaluation of human tissues; mouse model systems of cancer cell invasion and metastasis; and mouse model systems of venous thrombosis, aging, and wound healing/repair. I was very fortunate to be able to recruit some truly amazing graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to perform all of these studies.

Likewise, there are a lot of ways to study a disorder like Parkinson’s disease including model cell systems, model rodent systems, and human clinical trials. However, Parkinson’s is not an ‘easy’ human disease to characterize; even with the four Cardinal motor symptoms, we express our disorder slightly differently from one other.  In the past 20-25 years, from reading the literature, much has been learned and advanced with various rodent model systems of Parkinson’s. Studies began in the early 2000’s evaluating the role of exercise in rodent Parkinson’s model systems.  Four such papers (out of many) are highlighted below; with evidence for neuroprotection, neuro-restoration and neuroplasticity. In a 2001 study, Tillerson et al. concluded “These results  suggest that physical therapy may be beneficial in Parkinson’s disease.” Importantly, recent human clinical trials/studies are clearly showing positive results with exercise in Parkinson’s (depending on the study they have shown neuroprotection, improved motor defect and cognitive function gains).

  • Screenshot 2018-04-08 20.51.07Screenshot 2018-04-07 21.30.27Screenshot 2018-04-08 20.48.59Screenshot 2018-04-08 20.46.01

“Take care of your body. It’s the only place you have to live.” Jim Rohn

Highlights and Overview of “Running wheel exercise reduces α-synuclein aggregation and improves motor and cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease”:

  • Gene mutations that have been found to cause Parkinson’s include α-synuclein, Parkin, UCHL1, DJ-1, PINK1, LRRK2, and VSP35. These mutations result in loss of neuroprotection (e.g., DJ-1 and PINK1), or gain of toxic function (e.g., α-synuclein and LRRK2).
  • The protein α-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies that are the signature brain lesions in Parkinson’s. A mouse model that overexpresses human α-synuclein is very similar to the human condition.  The most neurotoxic form of α-synuclein are the α-synuclein oligomers, which implies that preventing α-synuclein aggregation could slow disease progression.
  • The focus of this research was the neuroprotective effects of exercise (running wheel) in mice and quantifying the effect from exercise; they found typically the mice ran >5miles/day.

running

  • They found that one week of running wheel activity led to significantly increased DJ-1 protein concentrations in muscle and plasma in normal mice (compared to mice not running).  Furthermore, using a mouse model with DJ-1 genetically deleted, running wheel performance was much reduced indicating that DJ-1 is important for normal motor activity.
  • They then studied exercise in a mouse model expressing a mutant human form of α-synuclein that is found in all neurons- they wanted to see if exercise could prevent abnormal α-synuclein protein deposition and behavioral decline.
  • Their results showed that motor and cognitive performance were significantly better in exercising animals compared to control mice not allowed to run.
  • They found that the exercising mice had significantly increased levels of DJ-1, Hsp70 and BDNF concentrations and had significantly less α-synuclein aggregation in brain compared to control mice not allowed to run.
  • Interestingly, they also found that blood plasma concentrations of α-synuclein were significantly higher in exercising mice compared to control mice not allowed to run.
  • They conclude that exercise may be neuroprotective. Their results imply that exercise may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease by preventing α-synuclein aggregation in brain.
  • Below are presentation of interesting results from Figures 4, 5, and 6:

Figure 4 (above) shows that exercise in the aged over-expressing α-synuclein mice had increased levels of DJ-1 (panel B), HSP70 (panel C) and BDNF (panel D) in their brains, and also increased DJ-1 levels in both muscle (panel F) and blood plasma (panel G), compared to non-exercise control mice.

Figure 5 (above) shows that exercise in the aged over-expressing α-synuclein mice had reduced formation of oligomeric α-synuclein (panel C is specific for human α-synuclein protein and panel D is for both mouse and human α-synuclein protein) compared to non-exercise control mice.

Figure 6 (above) shows that exercise in the aged over-expressing α-synuclein mice had increased α-synuclein concentration in blood plasma (panel C is specific for human α-synuclein protein and panel D is for both mouse and human α-synuclein protein) compared to non-exercise control mice.

“I have two doctors, my left leg and my right.” G.M. Trevelyan

Exercise Slows Progression of Parkinson’s: This was both a straightforward and elegant study that gives mechanistic insight into the positive benefits of exercise in Parkinson’s. Here is how it could hopefully be translated from mouse to man: (1) Exercise prevents α-synuclein oligomer accumulation in brain; reduced in brain and increased (monomers and dimers) in blood plasma.  (2) Exercise significantly improved motor and cognitive function.  (3) The benficial effects of exercise is partly related to increased levels of DJ-1, Hsp70 and BDNF, which are neuroprotective substances. (4)  It is not possible to totally define/describe how exercise alters brain function in Parkinson’s when exercise itself produces such widespread systemic changes and benefits.

In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of exercise.  It almost seems that exercise made the brain behave like a molecular-sieve to filter out the toxic oligomeric α-synuclein protein and it accumulated in the bloodstream.  Exercise works by slowing the progression of Parkinson’s. 

“If you always put limit on everything you do, physical or anything else. It will spread into your work and into your life. There are no limits. There are only plateaus, and you must not stay there, you must go beyond them.” Bruce Lee

Featured cover image credit:  https://www.pinterest.com/pin/22025485657771738/?lp=true

Living and Working with “HOPE” in the Presence of Parkinson’s

“Life is difficult. This is the great truth, one of the greatest truths-it is a great truth because once we see this truth, we transcend it.” M. Scott Peck

“Life is hard. Life is beautiful. Life is difficult. Life is wonderful.” Kate DiCamillo

Introduction: A student and loyal reader of this blog recently asked “What do I do with all of the advice/tips/suggestion posts from the blog?” My reply was they help me balance out my day-to-day life; especially for work and to protect my time for exercise and time to spend with the significant-people in my life.  I typically print out the 1-page summaries and keep them in a folder, or post them at work, as reminders to what I value.  “What about all of your supportive and descriptive statements about living well with Parkinson’s disease?  I bet your readers of the blog would enjoy having some of your statements compiled like your advice posts, don’t you agree?”  My response was you want me to make some 1-page handouts of my comments? Yes, I could do that. That kind of a handout could help me as well; they could also serve as a roadmap to where the blog has traveled.  Interesting questions/suggestions, thanks for asking them.

“If you don’t know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.” Yogi Berra

The tenacity of hope: There are 4 broad goals to this blog: i) describe living with Parkinson’s (“Life Lessons“); ii) report emerging medical strategies for treating/managing/curing Parkinson’s (“Medical Education“); iii) support mechanism to anyone with Parkinson’s or any of the neurodegenerative disorders (“Strategy for Living“); and iv) educate by presenting scientific aspects of Parkinson’s (“Translating Science”).  Throughout much of the posts here, I firmly believe that words/concepts like hope, positive, persistent, staying happy and healthy, exercise (a lot, daily if possible), and refuse to give up are all important ‘life-lines’ for us to adopt in our dealing with this disorder.  Today’s message returns to hope and “HOPE”.  Hope is defined by the Cambridge dictionary as “the feeling that something desired can be had or will happen”.  I use HOPE as an acronym in Parkinson’s and it stands for:

H = Hope/Health(y)
O = Optimistic/Positive
P = Persistent/Perseverance
E = Enthusiasm for life, for career, and for exercise

Steve Gleason said “Life is difficult. Not just for me or other ALS patients. Life is difficult for everyone. Finding ways to make life meaningful and purposeful and rewarding, doing the activities that you love and spending time with the people that you love – I think that’s the meaning of this human experience.”  I really like the sentiment of his statement and admire his courage through adversity.  It reminds me that we are a community with a shared theme; while we are spread out throughout the world, we understand one another because Parkinson’s has been sewn in to the fabric of our lives. I am also convinced that staying hopeful and using HOPE gives us tenacity to deal with the subtle changes being forced upon us by the ever present Parkinson’s.

“Your qualifications, your CV, are not your life, though you will meet many people of my age and older who confuse the two. Life is difficult, and complicated, and beyond anyone’s control, and the humility to know that will enable you to survive its vicissitudes.” J.K. Rowling

Living and working with HOPE: This current post reinforces the meaning for HOPE.  It reminds me of Stevie Nicks and Fleetwood Mac’s Landslide where she sings “Can I sail through the changin‘ ocean tides? / Can I handle the seasons of my life?” We confront both of these questions daily with Parkinson’s.  My hope is you find reassurance that your life and world are still meaningful, and you are not battling Parkinson’s alone. We know and we understand what you are confronting each day; thus, be persistent and remain hopeful.

Here is a link to a SlideShare file that will allow you to easily read/view all of these 1-page handouts.  You do not need a login, it’s free. You can read, clip and copy individual slides (1-page handouts); it even will let you download the entire file: click here to view Living and Working with “HOPE” in the Presence of Parkinson’s. Alternatively, here is the URL: https://www.slideshare.net/FrankChurch1/living-and-working-with-hope-in-the-presence-of-parkinsons  And finally, in case the above link proves problematic, here is a copy of these 1-page summaries (click here to download PDF file).  I have enjoyed re-reading the old blog posts these were derived from (some of these were previously posted and several are new) and they are presented as follows:

  • Part 1: Some of Frank’s quotes about living with Parkinson’s (four 1-page handouts);
  • Part 2: Suggestions, character traits, and tips for the journey through life and career in the absence and presence of Parkinson’s (seven 1-page summaries);
  • Part 3: Health and exercise while living with Parkinson’s (five 1-page summaries);
  • Part 4: Historical time-line of Parkinson’s disease (six 1-page reports)

“Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” Albert Einstein

Know that wherever you are in your life right now is both temporary, and exactly where you are supposed to be. You have arrived at this moment to learn what you must learn, so you can become the person you need to be to create the life you truly want. Even when life is difficult or challenging-especially when life is difficult and challenging-the present is always an opportunity for us to learn, grow, and become better than we’ve ever been before.” Hal Elrod

Cover photo credit: asisbiz.com/USA/17-Mile-Drive/images/The-Lonely-Cypress-Tree-17-Mile-Drive-Monterey-California-July-2011-06.jpg

64 Quotes on Persistence to Help Your Journey With Parkinson’s Disease

“Kites rise highest against the wind – not with it!” Winston Churchill

“Energy and persistence conquer all things.” Benjamin Franklin

Introduction: On January 1, LinkedIn announced that I had a work anniversary of 32 years at The University North Carolina at Chapel Hill ( if you include my postdoc at UNC-CH, this is a grand total of 36 years). My dear friend Lisa Cox (she is a graduate of The University North Carolina at Chapel Hill) wrote to congratulate me and said the following: “Grateful for your commitment to the University and to your students. Your steadfast determination is to be commended.”  Her use of the words ‘steadfast determination’  got me thinking about the word persistent  (steadfast is a synonym for persistent) and this thinking led to the current blog post.

Persistence in the backdrop of staying hopeful:  I truly admire and enjoy reading works by Dr. Brené Brown. Her insight, research/writing and her thoughtful commentary on many different topics are truly remarkable.  She has studied hope and when you have Parkinson’s hope is a very important word to embrace.  One of her stories on hope, mixed with persistence, deals with the work of C. R. Snyder, at the University of Kansas, Lawrence.  Embracing and expanding upon this work, “hope is a thought process; hope happens when (1) We have the ability to set realistic goals (I know where I want to go); (2) We are able to figure out how to achieve those goals, including the ability to stay flexible and develop alternative routes (I know how to get there, I’m persistent, and I can tolerate disappointment and try again); and (3) We believe in ourselves (I can do this!).” To read in-depth this presentation entitled “Learning to Hope–Brené Brown”, click here. And again the word ‘persistent’ stood out while reading this document.

Persistence and Parkinson’s:Persistence (per·sist·ence /pərˈsistəns/ noun) is defined as (1) firm or obstinate continuance in a course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition, and (2) the continued or prolonged existence of something.  If you’re going to thrive in the presence of Parkinson’s, you will definitely need persistence because you will be locked in a lifelong battle to resist its presence every minute of every day.  Besides being hopeful and positive, having persistence will help enable your daily journey with Parkinson’s.  In other words, persistence is not giving up without trying,  searching out and exploring new pathways for your life, and it certainly demands steadfast determination.

64* Quotes on Persistence to Help You Stay Positive and Hopeful, and to Keep You Exercising: (*Why 64? Because I’m 64 years old) I started with >100 quotes and ended up with this list; they are arranged alphabetically by the author’s first name. [This is the third time I’ve written about persistence in the presence of Parkinson’s; to read the first blog post “Persistence and Parkinson’s” click here, and to read the most recent blog post “Chapter 7: A Parkinson’s Reading Companion on Persistenceclick here.]  May these quotes about persistence bolster your daily dealing with this dastardly disorder named Parkinson’s.

  1. “I do the very best I know how, the very best I can and I mean to keep doing so until the end.” Abraham Lincoln
  2. “It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer.” Albert Einstein
  3. “The best view comes after the hardest climb.” Anonymous/Unknown
  4.  “Strength does not come from winning. Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide n.ot to surrender, that is strength.” Arnold Schwarzenegger
  5. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit.” Aristotle
  6. “Things turn out best for the people who make the best out of the way things turn out.” Art Linkletter
  7. “Better is possible. It does not take genius. It takes diligence. It takes moral clarity. It takes ingenuity. And above all, it takes a willingness to try.” Atul Gawande
  8. “You just can’t beat the person who never gives up.” Babe Ruth
  9. “History has demonstrated that the most notable winners usually encountered heartbreaking obstacles before they triumphed. They won because they refused to become discouraged by their defeat.” C. Forbes
  10. “As long as there’s breath in You–Persist!” Bernard Kelvin Clive
  11. “No great achievement is possible without persistent work.” Bertrand Russell
  12. “My greatest point is my persistence. I never give up in a match. However down I am, I fight until the last ball. My list of matches shows that I have turned a great many so-called irretrievable defeats into victories.” Bjorn Borg
  13. “In the confrontation between the stream and the rock, the stream always wins – not through strength, but through persistence.” Buddha
  14. “Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.” Calvin Coolidge
  15. “Success is the result of perfection, hard work, learning from failure, loyalty, and persistence.” Colin Powell
  16. “It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.” Confucius
  17.  “Don’t let the fear of the time it will take to accomplish something stand in the way of your doing it. The time will pass anyway; we might just as well put that passing time to the best possible use.” Earl Nightingale
  18. “A little more persistence, a little more effort, and what seemed hopeless failure may turn to glorious success.”Elbert Hubbard
  19. “If you are doing all you can to the fullest of your ability as well as you can, there is nothing else that is asked of a soul.” Gary Zukav
  20. ”Morale is the state of mind. It is steadfastness and courage and hope. It is confidence and zeal and loyalty. It is elan, esprit de corps and determination.” George C. Marshall
  21. “You go on. You set one foot in front of the other, and if a thin voice cries out, somewhere behind you, you pretend not to hear, and keep going.” Geraldine Brooks
  22. “Knowing trees, I understand the meaning of patience. Knowing grass, I can appreciate persistence.” Hal Borland
  23. “Perseverance is a great element of success. If you only knock long enough and loud enough at the gate, you are sure to wake up somebody.” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  24. “The difference between perseverance and obstinacy is, that one often comes from a strong will, and the other from a strong won’t.” Henry Ward Beecher
  25. “When you have a great and difficult task, something perhaps almost impossible, if you only work a little at a time, every day a little, suddenly the work will finish itself.” Isak Dinesen
  26. “Look at a stone cutter hammering away at his rock, perhaps a hundred times without as much as a crack showing in it. Yet at the hundred-and-first blow it will split in two, and I know it was not the last blow that did it, but all that had gone before.” Jacob A. Riis
  27. “The most essential factor is persistence–the determination never to allow your energy or enthusiasm to be dampened by the discouragement that must inevitably come.” James Whitcomb Riley
  28. ”We all have dreams. But in order to make dreams come into reality, it takes an awful lot of determination, dedication, self-discipline, and effort.” Jesse Owens
  29. “This is the highest wisdom that I own; freedom and life are earned by those alone who conquer them each day anew.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  30. “Courage and perseverance have a magical talisman, before which difficulties disappear and obstacles vanish into air.” John Quincy Adams
  31. “Perseverance is failing 19 times and succeeding the 20th.” Julie Andrews
  32. “If you wish to be out front, then act as if you were behind.” Lao Tzu
  33. “You aren’t going to find anybody that’s going to be successful without making a sacrifice and without perseverance.“ Lou Holtz
  34. “Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal. My strength lies solely in my tenacity.” Louis Pasteur
  35. “Full effort is full victory.” Mahatma Gandhi
  36. “You’re not obligated to win. You’re obligated to keep trying to do the best you can every day.” Marina Wright Edelman
  37. “If you can’t fly, then run, if you can’t run then walk, if you can’t walk then crawl, but whatever you do, you have to keep moving forward.” Martin Luther King, Jr.
  38. “Courage doesn’t always roar, sometimes it’s the quiet voice at the end of the day whispering I will try again tomorrow.” Mary Anne Radmacher
  39. “Courage is the most important of all the virtues because without courage, you can’t practice any other virtue consistently.” Maya Angelou
  40. “You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated. In fact, it may be necessary to encounter the defeats, so you can know who you are, what you can rise from, how you can still come out of it.” Maya Angelou
  41. “I’ve missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I’ve lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I’ve been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.” Michael Jordan
  42. “Give the world the best you have and you may get hurt. Give the world your best anyway.” Mother Theresa
  43. “Patience, persistence, and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.” Napoleon Hill
  44. “It always seems impossible until it is done.” Nelson Mandela
  45. “I will persist until I succeed. Always will I take another step. If that is of no avail I will take another, and yet another. In truth, one step at a time is not too difficult. I know that small attempts, repeated, will complete any undertaking.” Og Mandino
  46. “Enter every activity without giving mental recognition to the possibility of defeat. Concentrate on your strengths, instead of your weaknesses… on your powers, instead of your problems.” Paul J. Meyer
  47. “He conquers who endures.” Persius
  48. “Our greatest glory is not in never failing, but in rising up every time we fail.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
  49. “We are human. We are not perfect. We are alive. We try things. We make mistakes. We stumble. We fall. We get hurt. We rise again. We try again. We keep learning. We keep growing. And we are thankful for this priceless opportunity called life.” Ritu Ghatourey
  50.  “Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.” Robert Collier
  51. “The best way out is always through.” Robert Frost
  52. “Your hardest times often lead to the greatest moments of your life. Keep going. Tough situations build strong people in the end.” Roy Bennett
  53. “There are two ways of attaining an important end, force and perseverance; the silent power of the latter grows irresistible with time.” Sophie Swetchine
  54. “To succeed, you must have tremendous perseverance, tremendous will. “I will drink the ocean,” says the persevering soul; “at my will mountains will crumble up.” Have that sort of energy, that sort of will; work hard, and you will reach the goal.” Swami Vivekananda
  55. “Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to always try just one more time.” Thomas Edison
  56. “Permanence, perseverance, and persistence in spite of all obstacles, discouragement, and impossibilities: It is this, that in all things distinguishes the strong soul from the weak.” Thomas Carlyle
  57. “With ordinary talent and extraordinary perseverance, all things are attainable.” Thomas Foxwell Buxton
  58. “I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.” Thomas Jefferson
  59. “We are made to persist. That’s how we find out who we are.” Tobias Wolff
  60. “I am not judged by the number of times I fail, but by the number of times I succeed: and the number of times I succeed is in direct proportion to the number of times I fail and keep trying.” Tom Hopkins
  61. “The quality of a person’s life is in direct proportion to their commitment to excellence regardless of their chosen field of endeavor.”  Vince Lombardi
  62. “Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they’ve got a second.” William James
  63. “Continuous effort–not strength or intelligence–is the key to unlocking our potential.” Winston Churchill
  64. “If you’re going through hell, keep going. Winston Churchill
Motivation using quotes on persistence and pictures/diagrams/ideas related to Parkinson’s:  I am a very visual person and I also need motivation as the new year begins with winter cold in North Carolina  (yes, we got some snow/freezing rain/ice, and yes Chapel Hill was mostly brought to a standstill; so we move on and hope for an early spring).  Therefore, to help me stay motivated to exercise every day,  and to remind me of all the benefits that exercise provides me against Parkinson’s progression I made the following images.
 Also displayed below are 12 additional quotes mounted on some colorful artful backgrounds.   Hopefully, this will provide you a template to make your own favorite motivational group of persistence quotes.

Please stay focused on taking the best care of you by working well with your family and support team, be honest with your movement disorder Neurologist, get plenty of exercise and try to sleep well.  You hold the key to unlock the plan to manage your Parkinson’s.

“Strength is found in each of us.  For those of us with Parkinson’s, we use our personal strengths of character to bolster our hope, courage, mindfulness/contentment/gratitude, determination, and the will to survive. Stay strong. Stay hopeful. Stay educated. Stay determined. Stay persistent. Stay courageous. Stay positive. Stay wholehearted. Stay mindful. Stay happy. Stay you.”  Frank C. Church

Cover Photo credit: http://www.wallpaperup.com/202084/morning_ice_sunrise_lake_snow_forest_winter_reflection.html

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Over-the-Counter Therapies in Parkinson’s

With Parkinson’s, exercise is better than taking a bottle of pills. If you don’t do anything you’ll just stagnate.” Brian Lambert

“With Parkinson’s you have two choices: You can let it control you, or you can control it. And I’ve chosen to control it.” US Senator Isakson

Introduction: Having one of the numerous neurodegenerative disorders can be disheartening, difficult and life-threatening/ending; however, Parkinson’s remains in the forefront of treatment schemes and therapeutic options.  We may have a slowly evolving disorder, yet I remain firmly entrenched both in striking back to try-to-slow its progression and in remaining hopeful that new advances are on the horizon to throttle-back its progression.  Recently, several people have asked for an update on my strategy for treating Parkinson’s.  My plan consists of (i) traditional Parkinson’s medication,  (ii) supplemented by a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach, and (iii) fueled by exercise. My philosophy is simple because I truly believe there are steps I can follow to remain as healthy as possible, which include having a positive mindset to support this effort, and to accept the axiom of the harder I try the better I’ll be.

“Life is to be lived even if we are not healthy.” David Blatt

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):The National Institutes of Health defines CAM as follows: “Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard medical care. ‘Complementary medicine’ refers to treatments that are used with standard treatment. ‘Alternative medicine’ refers to treatments that are used instead of standard treatment.”  Here is a nice overview of CAM (click here). The National Center for CAM (click here for NCCAM) gives five categories to broadly describe CAM (see below, and followed by some representative components for each of the 5 categories):

17.12.31.CAM_Summary

(1) Alternative medical systems include treatment by traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda and naturopathic medicine;
(2) Mind-body interventions like mindfulness meditation;
(3) Biologically-based therapies include over-the-counter natural products and herbal therapies;
(4) Manipulative and body-based methods describe chiropractic and massage therapies;
(5) Energy therapies include techniques such as Reiki and therapeutic touch.

“My way of dealing with Parkinson’s is to keep myself busy and ensure my mind is always occupied.” David Riley

CAM and Parkinson’s: Published CAM clinical trial studies have yielded only a sliver of positive response to slowing the progression of Parkinson’s, several were halted due to no change compared to the placebo-control group. Regardless of these ‘failed’ studies, many have embraced a CAM-based approach to managing their disorder, including me. Please remember that I’m not a clinician, and I’m not trying to convince you to adopt my strategy.  I am a biochemist trained in Hematology but I do read and ponder a lot, especially about Parkinson’s.  We know a lot about Parkinson’s and we’re learning a lot about the molecular details to how it promotes the disease.  There is not a cure although we have a growing array of drugs for therapeutic intervention.  Without a  cure, we look at the causes of Parkinson’s (see schematic below), we consider various CAM options, and we go from there (see schematic below). If you venture into adding to your portfolio of therapy, it is imperative you consult with your Neurologist/family medicine physician beforehand.  Your combined new knowledge with their experience can team-up to make an informed decision about your herb, over-the-counter compound use and its potential benefit/risk ratio.

17.12.31.PD_Cause.CAM“I discovered that I was part of a Parkinson’s community with similar experiences and similar questions that I’d been dealing with alone.”Michael J. Fox

A strategy for treating Parkinson’s: The treatment plan I follow uses traditional medical therapy, CAM (several mind-body/manual practices and numerous natural products) and the glue that ties it all together is exercise.  Presented here is an overview of my medical therapy and CAM natural products. I only list the exercises I am using, not describe or defend them.  Due to my own personal preference for the length of a blog post, I will return to them later this year and include an update of the mind-body/manual practices that I’m currently using. Please note that these views and opinions expressed here are my own. Content presented here is not meant as medical advice. Definitely consult with your physician before taking any type of supplements.   The schematic below gives a ‘big-picture’ view of my treatment strategy.

18.01.01.Daily_Take. brain.druge.CAM.Exercise

To some, my treatment plan may seem relatively conservative. It has been developed through conversations with my Neurologist and Internist.  This was followed by studying the medical literature on what has worked in Parkinson’s treatment, the list of compounds to consider was defined/refined (actually, my choice of OTC compounds has been trimmed from several years ago).  My CAM drug/vitamin/natural products strategy for treating Parkinson’s goes as follows: a) compounds (reportedly) able to penetrate the blood brain barrier; b) compounds (possibly) able to slow progression of the disorder; c) compounds that either are anti-oxidative or are anti-inflammatory; d) compounds that don’t adversely alter existing dopamine synthesis/activity; e) compounds that support overall body well-being; and f) compounds that support specific brain/nervous system health/nutrition. [Please consult with your physician before taking any type of supplements.] The Table below presents a detailed overview of my strategy for treating Parkinson’s.

18.01.01.DailyTherapy4Note of caution: Most herbs and supplements have not been rigorously studied as safe and effective treatments for PD. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements; therefore, there is no guarantee of safety, strength or purity of supplements.

REPLACING DOPAMINE:
On a daily basis, I use a combination of Carbidopa/Levodopa (25 mg/100 mg tablet x 4 daily, every 5 h on an empty stomach if possible, typically 6AM, 11AM, 4PM, 9PM) and a dopamine agonist Requip XL [Ropinirole 6 mg total (3 x 2 mg tablets) x 3 daily, every 6 h, typically 6AM, noon, 6PM).  This treatment strategy and amount combining Carbidopa/Levodopa and Ropinirole has been in place for the past 18 months (NOTE: I stopped using the additional dopamine agonist Neupro transdermal patch Rotigotine). For an overview on Carbidopa/Levodopa, I highly recommend the following 2 papers:
[1.] Ahlskog JE. Cheaper, Simpler, and Better: Tips for Treating Seniors With Parkinson Disease. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2011;86(12):1211-6. doi: https://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2011.0443.
[2.] 1. Espay AJ, Lang AE. Common Myths in the Use of Levodopa in Parkinson Disease: When Clinical Trials Misinform Clinical Practice. JAMA Neurol. 2017. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0348. PubMed PMID: 28459962.

ISRADIPINE:
An FDA-approved calcium-channel blocker (CCB) named Isradipine penetrates the blood brain barrier to block calcium channels and potentially preserve dopamine-making cells. Isradipine may slow the progression of Parkinson’s. The primary use of Isradipine is in hypertension; thus, to treat my pre-hypertension I switched from the diuretic Hydrochlorothiazide to the CCB Isradipine.  A CCB is a more potent drug than a diuretic; importantly, my blood pressure is quite normal now and maybe I’m slowing the progression of my Parkinson’s. Please see this blog post for a review of Isradipine (click here). [Please consult with your physician before taking any type of new medication.

ANTIOXIDANTS/VITAMINS/GENERAL HEALTH:
N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC; 600 mg x 3 daily) is a precursor to glutathione, a powerful anti-oxidant. In several studies, NAC has been shown to be neuroprotective in Parkinson’s (click here).  I have recently posted an overview of NAC (click here). Furthermore, the ‘Science of Parkinson’s disease’ has presented their usual outstanding quality in a blog post on NAC in PD (click here);
trans-Resveratrol (200 mg daily) is an antioxidant that crosses the blood-brain barrier, which could reduce both free-radical damage and inflammation in Parkinson’s. If you decide to purchase this compound, the biologically-active form is trans-Resveratrol. The ‘Science of Parkinson’s disease’ has an excellent blog post on Resveratrol in PD (click here);
Grape Seed (100 mg polyphenols, daily) is an antioxidant that crosses the blood-brain barrier, which could reduce both free-radical damage and inflammation in Parkinson’s;
Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum, 300 mg daily) and its active substance Silymarin protects the liver.  Dr. Jay Lombard in his book, The Brain Wellness Plan, recommends people with PD who take anti-Parkinson’s drugs (metabolized through the liver) to add 300 mg of Silymarin (standardized milk thistle extract) to their daily medication regime.
Melatonin (3 mg 1 hr before sleep) Melatonin is a hormone that promotes sustained sleep. Melatonin is also thought to be neuroprotective (click here);
Probiotic Complex with Acidophilus is a source of ‘friendly’ bacteria to contribute to a healthy GI tract.
Vitamin (daily multiple)
A high-potency multivitamin with minerals to meet requirements of essential nutrients, see label for content [I only take 1 serving instead  of the suggested 2 gummies due to my concern about taking a large amount of Vitamin B6 as described in a recent blog (click here)]:
IMG_2059 copyVitamin D3 (5000 IU 3 times/week) is important for building strong bones. Now we also know that vitamin D3 is almost like ‘brain candy’ because it stimulates hundreds of brain genes, some of which are anti-inflammatory and some support nerve health (click here). Supplementation with vitamin D3 (1200 IU/day) for a year slowed the progression of a certain type of Parkinson’s (click here). Furthermore, augmentation with vitamin D3 was recently shown to slow cognitive issues in Parkinson’s (click here).

NO LONGER TAKE Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), Creatine and Vitamin E because they did not delay the progression of Parkinson’s or they were harmful.
NO LONGER TAKE a high potency Vitamin B Complex (see label below) due to my concern that a large excess vitamin B6 could be detrimental to Carbidopa/Levodopa (click here for blog post):
Screen Shot 2018-01-02 at 11.39.56 PM
List of several recent PubMed peer-reviewed CAM reviews (includes a more comprehensive overview of all areas of CAM in treating Parkinson’s):
Bega D, Zadikoff C. Complementary & alternative management of Parkinson’s disease: an evidence-based review of eastern influenced practices. J Mov Disord. 2014;7(2):57-66. doi: 10.14802/jmd.14009. PubMed PMID: 25360229; PMCID: PMC4213533.

Bega D, Gonzalez-Latapi P, Zadikoff C, Simuni T. A Review of the Clinical Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2014;16(10):314. doi: 10.1007/s11940-014-0314-5.

Ghaffari BD, Kluger B. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson’s disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014;14(6):451. doi: 10.1007/s11910-014-0451-y. PubMed PMID: 24760476.

Kim HJ, Jeon B, Chung SJ. Professional ethics in complementary and alternative medicines in management of Parkinson’s disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2016;6(4):675-83. doi: 10.3233/JPD-160890. PubMed PMID: 27589539; PMCID: PMC5088405.

Kim TH, Cho KH, Jung WS, Lee MS. Herbal medicines for Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35695. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035695. PubMed PMID: 22615738; PMCID: PMC3352906.

Wang Y, Xie CL, Wang WW, Lu L, Fu DL, Wang XT, Zheng GQ. Epidemiology of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20(8):1062-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.10.022. PubMed PMID: 23815871. 

Today we take control over our Parkinson’s:
Please stay focused on dealing with your disorder.
Please learn as much as you can about Parkinson’s.
Please work with your neurologist to devise your own treatment strategy.
Please stretch and exercise on a daily basis, it will make a difference.
Please be involved in your own disorder; it matters that you are proactive for you.
Please stay positive and focused as you deal with this slowly evolving disease.
Please stay hopeful you can mount a challenge to slow the progression.
Please remain persistent; every morning your battle renews and you must be prepared.

 

In the midst of winter, I found there was, within me, an invincible summer.  And that makes me happy. For it says that no matter how hard the world pushes against me, within me, there’s something stronger – something better, pushing right back.” Albert Camus

Cover photo credit: news.nowmedia.co.za/medialibrary/Article/109153/Wine-grape-crop-6-7-down-in-2016-800×400.jpg

 

9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s

“A willing mind makes a hard journey easy.” Philip Massinger

“Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being.” Plato

Introduction: Much of my life has been spent exercising. Most of this exercise has been done with sheer delight.  Since receiving my Parkinson’s diagnosis, my opinion of exercise has changed.  With Parkinson’s, I’m now exercising as if my life depends on it.  Why?  Animal models (mouse and rat) of Parkinson’s have convincing shown the effect of exercise-induced neuroplasticity.  These animal studies demonstrated neuroprotection and even neurorestoration of Parkinson’s.  But we’re neither mice/rats nor are we an animal model of Parkinson’s disease; thus, this post is an update on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s.

“If you don’t do what’s best for your body, you’re the one who comes up on the short end.” Julius Erving

cartoon-brain-exercise

9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s: Neuroplasticity,  neuroprotection and neurorestoration are catchy words that populate a lot of publications, blogs from many of us with Parkinson’s and from professionals who study/work in the field of Parkinson’s.  It is important for you to develop your own opinion about exercise-induced neuroplasticity. My goal in this post is to provide the basic elements, concepts and key reference material to help you with this opinion. Here is a 1-page summary of “9 Things to Know About Exercise-induced Neuroplasticity in Human Parkinson’s” (click here to download page).

9_things_exercise_neuroplasticity_parkinsons

(1) Parkinson’s Disease (PD): Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disorder. Parkinson’s usually presents as a movement disorder, which is a slow progressive loss of motor coordination, gait disturbance, slowness of movement, rigidity, and tremor.  Parkinson’s can also include cognitive/psychological impairments. ~170 people/day are diagnosed with Parkinson’s in the USA; the average age of onset is ~60 years-old.

(2) Safety First: The benefit of an exercise routine/program will only work if you have (i) talked about it with your Neurologist and have his/her consent; (ii) you have received advice from a physical therapist/certified personal trainer about which exercises are ‘best’ for you; and (iii) you recognize that PD usually comes with gait and balance issues, and you are ready to begin. Safety first, always stay safe!

(3) Exercise: Exercise is activity requiring physical effort, carried out especially to sustain or improve health and fitness. Exercise is viewed by movement disorders clinicians, physical therapists, and certified personal trainers as a key medicinal ingredient in both treating and enabling patients at all stages of Parkinson’s.

(4) Brain Health: With or without Parkinson’s disease, taking care of your brain is all-important to your overall well-being, life-attitude, and health. For a balanced-healthy brain, strive for: proper nutrition and be cognitively fit; exercise; reduce stress; work and be mentally alert; practice mindfulness/meditation; sleep; and stay positive.

(5) Neuroplasticity: Neuroplasticity describes how neurons in the brain compensate for injury/disease and adjust their actions in response to environmental changes. “Forced-use exercise” of the more affected limb/side can be effective in driving neural network adaptation.  Ultimately, this can lead to improved function of the limb/side.

(6) Synapses are junctions between two nerve cells whereby neurotransmitters diffuse across small gaps to transmit and receive signals.

(7) Circuitry: A key result of neuroplasticity is the re-routing of neuronal pathways of the brain along which electrical and chemical signals travel in the central nervous system (CNS).

(8) Parkinson’s-specific Exercise Programs:
PWR!Moves (click here to learn more)
Rock Steady Boxing (click here to learn more)
LSVT BIG (click here to learn more)
Dance for PD (click here to learn more)
LIM Yoga (click here to learn more)
Tai Chi for PD (click here to learn more)

What types of exercise are best for people with Parkinson’s disease? Here is a nice overview of the benefits of exercise for those of us with Parkinson’s  (click here). Regarding the PD-specific exercise programs,  I am most familiar with PWR!Moves, Rock Steady Boxing and LSVT BIG (I’m certified to teach PWR!Moves, I’m a graduate of LSVT BIG, and I’ve participated in Rock Steady Boxing). A goal for you is to re-read ‘Safety First’ above and begin to decide which type of exercise you’d benefit from and would enjoy the most.

(9) Brain/Behavior Changes: The collective results found increase in corticomotor excitability, increase in brain grey matter volume, increase in serum BDNF levels, and decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. These results imply that neuroplasticity from exercise may potentially either slow or halt progression of Parkinson’s.

What the terms mean: Corticomotor describes motor functions controlled by the cerebral cortex (people with Parkinson’s show reduced corticomotor excitability). Brain grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system consisting of neuronal cells, myelinated and unmyelinated axons, microglial cells, synapses, and capillaries. BDNF is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is a protein involved in brain plasticity and it is important for survival of dopaminergic neurons. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine (protein) that is involved in systemic inflammation.  Some studies of exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s found the above-mentioned changes, which would imply a positive impact of exercise to promote neuroplastic changes.

What can you do with all of the cited articles listed at the end? Compiled below are some comprehensive and outstanding reviews about exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s.  Looking through these papers, you’ll see years of work, but this work has all of the details to everything I’ve described.

“All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better.” Ralph Waldo Emerson

What I believe about neuroplasticity and exercise in Parkinson’s: [Please remember I am not a physician; definitely talk with your neurologist before beginning any exercise program.]  I think about exercising each day; I try to do it on a daily basis.  As a scientist, I’m impressed by the rodent Parkinson’s data and how exercise promotes neuroplasticity. The human studies are also believable; sustained aerobic exercise induces neuroplasticity to improve overall brain health. “Forced-use exercise” is an important concept; I try to work my right-side (arm and leg), which are slightly weaker and stiffer from Parkinson’s. Initially, I used my left arm more, now I ‘force’ myself on both sides with the hope my neural network is stabilized or even improving. If you enjoy exercising as I do, I view it as both an event and a reward; ultimately, I believe it can work and improve my response to Parkinson’s. If you don’t enjoy exercising, this may be more of a task and duty; however, the benefits over time can be better health. Exercise is good for you (heart and brain).  Begin slow, make progress, and see if you are living better with your disorder.  Remain hopeful and be both persistent and positive; try to enjoy your exercise.

“I am not afraid of storms for I am learning how to sail my ship.” Louisa May Alcott

Past blog posts: Both exercise itself and the benefit of exercise-induced neuroplasticity have been common themes for this blog, including (click on title to view blog posting):
Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s;
Déjà Vu and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s;
Golf And Parkinson’s: A Game For Life;
The Evolving Portrait of Parkinson’s;
Believe In Big Movements Of LSVT BIG Physical Therapy For Parkinson’s;
Meditation, Yoga, and Exercise in Parkinson’s;
Exercise and Parkinson’s.

“Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do.” John Wooden

References on neuroplasticity and exercise in Parkinson’s:
Farley, B. G. and G. F. Koshland (2005). “Training BIG to move faster: the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson’s disease.” Exp Brain Res 167(3): 462-467 (click here to view paper).

Fisher, B. E., et al. (2008). “The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson’s disease.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89(7): 1221-1229 (click here to view paper).

Hirsch, M. A. and B. G. Farley (2009). “Exercise and neuroplasticity in persons living with Parkinson’s disease.” Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 45(2): 215-229 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2010). “Enhancing neuroplasticity in the basal ganglia: the role of exercise in Parkinson’s disease.” Mov Disord 25 Suppl 1: S141-145 (click here to view paper).

Bassuk, S. S., et al. (2013). “Why Exercise Works Magic.” Scientific American 309(2): 74-79.

Lima, L. O., et al. (2013). “Progressive resistance exercise improves strength and physical performance in people with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review.” Journal of Physiotherapy 59(1): 7-13 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2013). “Exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity targeting motor and cognitive circuitry in Parkinson’s disease.” Lancet Neurol 12(7): 716-726 (click here to view paper)..

Ebersbach, G., et al. (2015). “Amplitude-oriented exercise in Parkinson’s disease: a randomized study comparing LSVT-BIG and a short training protocol.” J Neural Transm (Vienna) 122(2): 253-256 (click here to view paper).

Petzinger, G. M., et al. (2015). “The Effects of Exercise on Dopamine Neurotransmission in Parkinson’s Disease: Targeting Neuroplasticity to Modulate Basal Ganglia Circuitry.” Brain Plast 1(1): 29-39 (click here to view paper).

Abbruzzese, G., et al. (2016). “Rehabilitation for Parkinson’s disease: Current outlook and future challenges.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 22 Suppl 1: S60-64 (click here to view paper).

Hirsch, M. A., et al. (2016). “Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson’s disease: What is the evidence telling us?” Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 22, Supplement 1: S78-S81 (click here to view paper)

Tessitore, A., et al. (2016). “Structural connectivity in Parkinson’s disease.” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 22 Suppl 1: S56-59 (click here to view paper).

“If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health.” Hippocrates

“Life is complex. Each one of us must make his own path through life. There are no self-help manuals, no formulas, no easy answers. The right road for one is the wrong road for another…The journey of life is not paved in blacktop; it is not brightly lit, and it has no road signs. It is a rocky path through the wilderness.” M. Scott Peck

Cover photo credit: http://paper4pc.com/free-seascape.html#gal_post_55564_free-seascape-wallpaper-1.jpg

Brain exercising cartoon: http://tactustherapy.com/neuroplasticity-stroke-survivors/

Save

Save

Save

Save

7 Healthy Habits For Your Brain

   “Your brain – every brain – is a work in progress. It is ‘plastic.’ From the day we’re born to the day we die, it continuously revises and remodels, improving or slowly declining, as a function of how we use it.” Michael Merzenich

“The root of all health is in the brain. The trunk of it is in emotion. The branches and leaves are the body. The flower of health blooms when all parts work together.” Kurdish Saying

7 Basic Brain Facts [click here for more facts]: (1) The typical brain is ~2% of your total weight but it uses 20% of your total energy and oxygen intake. (2) >100,000 chemicals reactions/sec occur in your brain. (3) The latest estimate is that our brains contain ~86 billion brain cells. (4) In contrast to the popular belief that we use ~10% of our brains; brain scans show we use most of our brain most of the time. (5) There are as many as 10,000 specific types of neurons in the brain.  (6) Cholesterol is an integral part of every brain cell. Twenty-five percent of the body’s cholesterol resides within the brain. (7) Your brain generates between 12-25 watts of electricity, which is enough to power a low wattage LED light.

7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain: With or without Parkinson’s disease, taking care of your brain is all-important to your overall well-being, life-attitude, and health. These are  straightforward suggestions of healthy habits for your brain; hopefully, this list will serve as a reminder about their importance.  Here is a 1-page summary of the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain” (Click here to download file).

7-healthy-habits-for-your-brain


[1] Exercise and neuroplasticity:
  Exercise is almost like a soothing salve for your brain.  Some benefits of exercise include helping your memory and increased flow of oxygen to brain, which energizes the brain.  Exercise is good for both your heart and your brain. Exercise can reduce inflammation in the brain and increase hormones circulating to your brain.  For a brief overview on the benefits of exercise to your brain, click here.

Neuroplasticity is the ability to re-draw, re-wire the connections in your brain. What this means is that neuroplasticity is a concerted attempt of neurons to compensate for brain injury/disease. Neuroplasticity ultimately modifies your brain’s activities in response to changes in these neuronal-environments.

There is much positive evidence in animal models of Parkinson’s regarding exercise-induced neuroplasticity.  The same benefits are now being tested in humans with Parkinson’s and the results are most encouraging. One of the numerous backlogged blog drafts that will be completed in the near-future is a “Review of Exercise and Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s”.

“Exercise is really for the brain, not the body. It affects mood, vitality, alertness, and feelings of well-being.” John Ratey

“Neuroplasticity research showed that the brain changes its very structure with each different activity it performs, perfecting its circuits so it is better suited to the task at hand.” Naveen Jain

[2] Diet and brain food: Your memory is aided by ‘what’ you eat.  Harvard’s Women Health Watch makes the following suggestion to boost your memory through diet (click here to read entire article): “The Mediterranean diet includes several components that might promote brain health: Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil help improve the health of blood vessels, reducing the risk for a memory-damaging stroke; Fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been linked to lower levels of beta-amyloid proteins in the blood and better vascular health; Moderate alcohol consumption raises levels of healthy high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Alcohol also lowers our cells’ resistance to insulin, allowing it to lower blood sugar more effectively. Insulin resistance has been linked to dementia.”  WebMD summarized the role of diet and brain health in “Eat Smart for a Healthier Brain” (click here to read article).

A large group of women (>13,000 participants) over the age of 70 were studied and the results showed that the women who ate the most vegetables had the greater mental agility (click here to read the article). These results suggest for a healthy brain we should eat colorful fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants; and foods rich in natural vitamin E, vitamin C, B (B6, B12) folic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. Furthermore, we should avoid refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. In small amounts, vitamin D3 is almost like candy for your brain.

“Hunger, prolonged, is temporary madness! The brain is at work without its required food, and the most fantastic notions fill the mind.” Jules Verne

“Everything one reads is nourishment of some sort – good food or junk food – and one assumes it all goes in and has its way with your brain cells.” Lorrie Moore

[3] Mindfulness/meditation: Greater Good (The Science of a Meaningful Life) describes mindfulness as “…maintaining a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment. Mindfulness also involves acceptance, meaning that we pay attention to our thoughts and feelings without judging them—without believing, for instance, that there’s a ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ way to think or feel in a given moment.”  I recently described mindfulness as “Mindfulness means you stay within your breath, and focus within yourself, with no remembrance of the past minute and no planning for the future moment.”  Here’s a simple mindfulness experience/moment: simply be aware of the steam leaving your morning cup of coffee/tea, clear your immediate thoughts, then sip, focus and savor this moment.

“The picture we have is that mindfulness practice increases one’s ability to recruit higher order, pre-frontal cortex regions in order to down-regulate lower-order brain activity,” a comment from Dr. Adrienne Taren, a researcher studying mindfulness at the University of Pittsburgh. She also said  “it’s the disconnection of our mind from its ‘stress center’ that seems to give rise to a range of physical as well as mental health benefits.”  (Click here to read this article).  “What Does Mindfulness Meditation Do to Your Brain?” (click here to read more)

“Mindfulness practices enhance the connection between our body, our mind and everything else that is around us.” Nhat Hanh

“Mindfulness is a pause — the space between stimulus and response: that’s where choice lies.” Tara Brach

 [4] Stress reduction: When you are under constant or chronic stress your body makes more of the steroid hormone cortisol (a glucocorticoid), which is produced by the adrenal glands above your kidneys.  Over time, chronic stress can trigger changes in brain structure and function. Excess cortisol production reduces neuronal cells, over-produces myelin protective covering to our nerves, and we make more oligodendrocytes.  How do you reduce chronic stress?  Exercise and mindfulness/meditation are both able to lower cortisol levels.  Easier said then done to making life-style changes to reduce chronic stress; however, doing it will allow the neuroplastic process to begin re-wiring your brain. For an overview of stress and trying to manage/reduce chronic stress, click here.

“Stress is an ignorant state. It believes that everything is an emergency.” Natalie Goldberg

“There is more to life than increasing its speed.” Mahatma Gandhi

[5] Work, keep active mentally:  There are 2 sides to this topic.  First, stay engaged at work and you won’t age as fast as someone disengaged.  What I’m trying to say is simply staying active mentally at work will assist your brain during the ageing process.  Keep your brain stimulated with work, thought, challenges; the effort provides your brain with significant growth.  Your reward will be an active-focused and rejuvenated mind.  Second, by contrast, we’re all working long hours balancing too many tasks, all-the-time; ultimately, we’re trying to multi-task when we really can’t multi-task very well.  In a nice article entitled “The Magic of Doing One Thing at a Time“, Tony Schwartz summarized a key problem: “It’s not just the number of hours we’re working, but also the fact that we spend too many continuous hours juggling too many things at the same time. What we’ve lost, above all, are stopping points, finish lines and boundaries.”  As you balance the 2-sides-of-the-topic, focus your energy on the first-side by performing each individual task/topic; clear your mind, keep your brain engaged, focus hard and then let your brain renew.

“To let the brain work without sufficient material is like racing an engine. It racks itself to pieces.” Arthur Conan Doyle

“A fresh mind keeps the body fresh. Take in the ideas of the day, drain off those of yesterday.” Edward Bulwer-Lytton

 [6] Positive and happy is better for your brain:  I truly believe you need to be positive in dealing with Parkinson’s; trying to focus on staying happy will benefit all-around you and bolster your brain’s health. Using positivity will allow you to creatively handle many obstacles ahead, whether in the absence or presence of Parkinson’s.  Susan Reynolds summarized in “Happy Brain, Happy Life” that being happy: “stimulates the growth of nerve connections; improves cognition by increasing mental productivity; improves your ability to analyze and think; affects your view of surroundings; increases attentiveness; and leads to more happy thoughts.”  On the notion of staying positive, she said: “…thinking positive, happy, hopeful, optimistic, joyful thoughts decreases cortisol and produces serotonin, which creates a sense of well-being. This helps your brain function at peak capacity.”


Positive

“Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.” Maya Angelou

“You have to train your brain to be positive just like you work out your body.” Shawn Achor

[7] Sleep: It’s simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Many of us battle with less than adequate daily sleep habits.  However, it’s really simple; our brains, our bodies need sleep.  Much of our day’s success resides in the quality of sleep the night before.  The science of sleep is complex but much of it revolves around our brain.  We use sleep to renew and de-fragment our brain; and sleep helps strengthen our memory.  For more details on sleep science, please look over “What Happens in the Brain During Sleep?” (click here).  Alice G. Walton very nicely summarized several aspects of the sleep-brain interactions focusing on the following 7 headings: “Sleep helps solidify memory; Toxins, including those associated with Alzheimer’s disease, are cleared during sleep; Sleep is necessary for cognition; Creativity needs sleep; Sleep loss and depression are  intertwined; Physical health and longevity; and Kids need their sleep” [click here for “7 Ways Sleep Affects The Brain (And What Happens If It Doesn’t Get Enough)”].  Finally, the Rand Corp. just released a comprehensive study on sleep and the economic burden being caused by the lack of sleep (click here to read the 100-page report).

Sleep is the golden chain that ties health and our bodies together.Thomas Dekker

A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor’s book.   Irish Proverb

A Personal Reflection on the “7 Healthy Habits for Your Brain”:  My fall semester is physically, mentally, and emotionally draining; and I cherish doing all of these tasks, I really do.  The writing of this blog is a deliberate attempt to remind me what I need to be doing, to re-initiate tomorrow in my daily life.  I could explain each point in detail in what poor-brain-health-habits I’ve developed this semester (but I won’t).  However, I am printing out the 1-page handout of 7-healthy-brain-habits to keep it with me as I spend the rest of December re-establishing effective habits for my brain; and doing a better job of balancing work with life-love-fun.

“Your body, which is bonding millions of molecules every second, depends on transformation. Breathing and digestion harness transformation. Food and air aren’t just shuffled about but, rather, undergo the exact chemical bonding needed to keep you alive. The sugar extracted from an orange travels to the brain and fuels a thought. The emergent property in this case is the newness of the thought; no molecules in the history of the universe ever combined to produce that exact thought.” Deepak Chopra

Cover image: https://img1.etsystatic.com/000/0/6392236/il_fullxfull.267319437.jpg

Mindfulness list: http://www.mindful.org/7-things-mindful-people-do-differently-and-how-to-get-started/

Save

Save

Save

Save

Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s

“Life is not only merriment, it is desire and determination.” Kahlil Gibran

“Nothing will work unless you do.” Maya Angelou

Dedication: I recently participated in a Parkinson Wellness Recovery (PWR!) Instructor Workshop in Greenville, SC (July 30-31, 2016); now I am certified in PWR!Moves.  This post is dedicated to the workshop instructor Jennifer Bazan-Wigle; and to my classmates, all of the personal trainers interested in working with Parkinson’s disease patients.  Jennifer was simply a great instructor, with a real understanding of Parkinson’s and a true ability to ‘teach’.  The personal trainers who participated were very dedicated in their effort to master PWR!Moves and their willingness to instruct me during the weekend workshop made for a memorable experience.  And not to forget Steve Miller, a PWR!Moves instructor, who also helped teach; you were the inspiration that led me to apply for this workshop. To everyone certified in PWR!Moves and to those involved in my PWR!Moves workshop, thank you, thank you so very much.

PWR! Logo

“There are no shortcuts to any place worth going.” Beverly Sills

Introduction: Coach Lou Holtz said “Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.”  This got me thinking about ability, motivation and attitude but especially how vital both motivation and attitude are for living successfully with Parkinson’s.

Believe in Life in the Presence of Parkinson’s:
I’m a healthy person that happens to have Parkinson’s; this is what I believe:
I believe daily exercise enhances my life in the presence of Parkinson’s.
I believe people-with-Parkinson’s can become healthier with exercise.
I believe sustained exercise can promote neuroplasticity to re-wire my neural network.
I believe I have the ability to do the repetitions to re-train my brain.
I believe staying positive will help control the course of my Parkinson’s.
I believe having courage will provide mettle in the battle against my disorder.
I believe being persistent allows me to restrain my Parkinson’s.
I believe motivation begins from within, and there can be no backing down to this disease.
I believe if I don’t give up I can slow the progression of my disorder.
I believe if you pity me it feeds the hunger of my Parkinson’s.
I believe if you join my team, you can help me stall this slowly evolving disorder.
I believe attitude is the fuel to sustain the effort to combat Parkinson’s.
I believe in science that new therapies/strategies against Parkinson’s are on the horizon.
I believe exercise with ability, motivation and attitude will work to my advantage each day.
I believe that each new day renews my chance of slowing the beast named Parkinson’s.
My daily mantra is to never give up; I refuse to surrender to Parkinson’s.

“Keep your thoughts positive because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive because your words become your behavior. Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes your habits. Keep your habits positive because your habits become your values. Keep your values positive because your values become your destiny.” Mahatma Gandhi

Cover photo credit: https://c7.staticflickr.com/9/8615/16157237102_f15e505c19_b.jpg

 

Save